“ the belief Has gone out, the love to the tsar and fatherland " has gone out;the best as it was considered to be, year in the history of the Russian empire 95 years ago came to an end. At the Soviet power all its achievements - from melt of a steel before footwear manufacture - were calculated in percentage “ in comparison with 1913 “. However contemporaries hardly considered this year as the period of prosperity and general happiness.
“ this group had positively tragical appearance “
In Soviet period it was accepted to compare successes of a national economy with 1913 as last peace year of the Russian empire. All comparisons, certainly, were not in favour of 1913. Meanwhile this year has been chosen as the standard at all by Bolsheviks - that 1913 - j was almost best year of reign of Nikolay II, and that war and revolution have interrupted the begun launch of Russia, the first the former high-ranking dignitary Vladimir Kokovtsov who was in emigration has started talking. Anything strange in it was not: with 1904 till January, 1914 Kokovtsov with a small break was the Minister of Finance of the Russian empire, and since 1911 till January, 1914 - also the chairman of the council of ministers. And as any stately otstavnik he tried to present time of the board as the best for the country. And its last year - as best of the best in the history of Russia.
“ for a decade 1904 - 1913, - Kokovtsov wrote, - the base to healthy and rational development of all productive forces of the country was created, became stronger and extended... In the field of the industry of prime necessities manufacture of a cotton yarn has raised from 15 million poods in 1905 to 23 million in 1913, and manufacture of cotton fabrics with 13 to 20 million poods... In the field of the heavy industry - coal manufacture has increased from 1091 million poods in 1908 to 2214 million poods in 1913 of Pig-iron has been made in 1903 152 million pood. And in 1913 - 283 million pood... The reached results before the beginning of great war and the accident which have accompanied it were that in the fluent review. Really “ affairs of bygone days, predane olden time deep “! “
Bolshevist propagation, certainly, could not leave in hands at enemies such trump, as comparison with last peace year of pre-revolutionary Russia. The Soviet propagandists, like Kokovtsovu, strewed in figures and the facts which should show, how much Soviet citizens are happier than citizens of the Russian tsar. But, as it is strange, about happy 1913 the Soviet propagation did not discredit a myth, and supported - after all more likely if with this year compare new achievements, means, it of that costs.
Meanwhile to contemporaries 1913 at all did not seem year of abundance and happiness in spite of the fact that successes about which Kokovtsov wrote, really were. For them it there was the most usual year, short of, of course, grandiose celebrations on the occasion of 300 - letija House of Romanovs, and only the next years deprivations and accidents have forced to remember it as last year quiet and full life.
in the beginning of 1913 capital public was excited basically with events from culture area. In January Moscow was shaken by news that mad icon painter Abram Balashov has snatched with a knife on Repin picture “ Ivan the Terrible and the son its Ivan “ which hung in the Tretyakov gallery. Magazine “ the Field “ wrote:
“ Barbarous act has been made, obviously, mentally sick person on January, 16th of this year at 10 o`clock. Mornings. Sharp sadovnichego a knife it has made three strong blows 3 cuts about 8 vershoks of length everyone. Fortunately, eyes of Grozny and his son with their surprising expression remained are not touched “.
Petersburg worried in more pleasant occasion. To northern capital has arrived “ the well-known barefoot person “ - Isadora Duncan who has literally captivated fans of the fine. The dancer has subdued public the naturalness and originality. In the beginning of performance she stepped on the stage in furs and a hat, sat down on a chair, some time simply talked to musicians and conductors, and only then began the dance.
meanwhile at theatres and art workshops of the country at this time there were accelerated preparations for celebrating 300 - letija House of Romanovs. The power was going to use anniversary for strengthening of the prestige and demonstration of indissoluble communication of the tsar with the people in which after bloody revolution of 1905 and the followed terror military - field courts already very few people trusted. By an anniversary the set of the historical works glorifying tsars has been let out, there were propaganda brochures for the people, and newspapers informed in advance details of the future celebrations, warming up interest of public.
However celebrations have passed not so smoothly, as though it would be desirable it the authorities. Official actions have begun in Petersburg on February, 21st (the item item) . The day before the city has been decorated by garlands from electric bulbs, flags, Nikolay II portraits and its ancestors. “ exchange sheets “ informed that “ multi-colour, various, places brightly - motley, places the strict and stylish dress transforms even boring grey Petersburg streets into the sea of florid paints and gives them an exulting, celebratory kind “. But before the holiday the strong wind has broken a part of ornaments so the kind of streets was not such “ exulting “. The correspondent “ the Moscow sheets “ remained it is extremely dissatisfied seen in northern capital: “ Promised a show, and one grief has turned out... Followed dress up all in fantastic fantastic clothes. Then the people would joyfully be adjusted, would dump for the period of care of day of work, were sated with a show which during our boring time is more necessary than when - or “.
Celebrations began in slightly intense conditions. The authorities had data that revolutionary parties prepare provocations like singing “ the Marseillaise “ and processions under a red flag, besides the untrue report has come to police that in the Kazan cathedral where there should be an emperor, the bomb is put. As a result, as the chief of gendarmes and a companion of the Minister of Internal Affairs the general Dzhunkovsky, " remembered; the city has been literally turned into military camp “ that, as he said, “ should make unprofitable impression not only on the inhabitant, but also on the soldiers who were in the dress “.
the Holiday which should become a symbol of a national unification round a throne, also has been saddened by a number of scandals. The chairman of the State Duma Michael Rodzjanko was indignant with that, under the report, Duma members should stand in the Kazan cathedral during solemn service behind senators. It managed to prevail upon to change the master of ceremony Duma members and senators in places, but it business has not come to an end. When all have already taken the places, in a cathedral Rasputin in a crimson shirt was and has risen behind Duma members. Rodzjanko has made scandal, and the aged man retired.
a sovereign and his wife too have appeared not at height. During solemn ceremony when representatives of estates and descendants of the sorts promoting accession of Romanovs, Nikolay II should welcome the tsar has continued to talk to aide-de-camps and has not given come proper attention. The a widow empress during ceremony too frankly missed. The mayor of Petersburg and the former minister of national education count Ivan Tolstoy so remembered that bottom:
“ Two steps away from a sovereign there was empress Maria Fedorovna... Then in some distance, steps in 10 - 15 from a widow the young empress on an armchair, in the emaciated pose, all red as a peony, with almost mad eyes, and near to it, sitting too on a chair, undoubtedly tired successor in the form of marksmen of an imperial surname. This group had positively tragical appearance “.
on February, 22nd at the Maryinsky Theater in honour of an anniversary gave an opera “ Life for the tsar “. At theatre there was an imperial family, but the unification of the tsar has not occurred to public from - for strange behaviour Aleksandry Fedorovny who as many have noticed, behaved inadequately. The daughter of English ambassador Meriel Buchanan noticed that a look of the tsarina “ has been turned on any secret, internal thought which was, undoubtedly, it is far from the overflowed theatre and people welcoming it “. By words Buchanan, in the middle of performance the empress began to finger nervously a fan, “ on its pale face there was an unhealthy flush “ And after the first action it has unexpectedly left, then “ on theatre there has passed an indignation wave “. As a whole that evening at theatre has made burdensome impression upon many.
celebratings proceeded all the spring long. The imperial family has made travel across Volga. But it is far not in Nikolay II all cities exulting citizens waited. Kokovtsov, floating by one steamship with the emperor, marked in the people “ absence of the present enthusiasm “ and also “ very dim and weak display is faster than curiosity, rather than true lifting “. In Kostroma to the tsar also have at all thrown down a challenge. The leader of local nobility Zuzin has said at its presence speech in liberal spirit then at an imperial couple on the mood all the day has deteriorated. When the imperial family has arrived to Moscow, broad masses have seen that spectators at the Maryinsky Theater even earlier have noticed. It became clear for all that the successor whom during ceremonies carried on hands, is sick and that with Aleksandroj Fedorovnoj too something not so.
Political life in the country proceeded, accompanied by small conflicts against speeches about general unity. On one of the Duma sessions there was a grandiose scandal - one of leaders right, deputy Nikolay Markov 2 - j, having turned back to ministerial benches, has exclaimed: “ it is impossible to Steal! “ After that members of the government have declared to the Duma boycott and were not on its sessions up to November when Marks 2 - j at last has apologised.
scandals accompanied also stay of the tsar in Moscow. So, during reception in the Kremlin the emperor should meet noblemen and members of a municipal duma in Georgievsk to a hall, and with merchant class and narrow-mindedness - in Vladimir. Industrialist Krestovnikov has demanded from the minister of a court yard of count Frederiksa that merchants stood near to noblemen: “ We owners of Moscow. Is more useless to us in the second hall! “ after long altercations of Frederiks has conceded, and merchants were built near to noblemen.
however, despite of everything, the next years when life became heavy and sad, many with melancholy remembered this last big holiday of imperial Russia.
“ really these thousand owners simpletons, and we only the clever? “
come with the world war beginning economic difficulties have forced to remember 1913 as abundance time: then in agriculture high hopes were assigned to the farmers who have left after stolypinskoj of reform from country communities. In 1913 of peasants agitated to leave a community approximately the same as subsequently agitated to enter collective farm. In one of the propaganda brochures which have left that year, for example, it was told:
“ In Dmitrievsky district of Kursk province, in village Glamazdine, peasant Alexey Groshin whom, wishing to look at the eyes at life of farmers lives, went in Zhitomir district, the Volynsk province where farm have appeared many years ago. And here that Groshin tells: “ peasants of Zhitomir district have passed on farm, and at sandy soil, at small ground shares began to live much better, than lived in the country at a strip farming. I have called in in village Lesovshchinu which has dispersed on farm seven years ago. There live peasants regularly, it is not visible anywhere such filled up log huts, as at us... In village the Baize saw the same, in village Andreevke it is even better, and in farm village Chernjahovke are similar to manors - about houses gardens, klevernye fields... In log huts here I did not see, that was, as at us, all together, both children, and pigs, and lohanka, and a bread loaf. At farmers all separately and at everyone is a clean room with a floor. At them in klunjah not that that at us, and on a court yard does not roll manure, and the cattle does not go on all court yard, and costs on stalls “ “.
the brochure with an appeal in the spirit of the first five-years periods Came to an end:
“ Look, who calls you on farm. The Sovereign the emperor who has declared the new law on farms calls. The State Duma in which this law peasants, the former foremen, former volost considered the clerk, priests, the teacher, officials, landowners, scientific people calls. Call you on farm and many thousand domohozjaev the different provinces, left on farm. Really these thousand owners simpletons, and we only the clever? “
the system of farms, certainly, was more progressive in comparison with communal system, but the majority of peasants did not hasten to turn to farmers and did not feel any discomfort of that “ children and pigs “ grow up together, and the court yard is filled up by manure. By 1913 communities left no more than 10 % of peasants. At the same time, despite successes of agriculture, consumption of products in cities did not grow, and more likely even it was reduced. So, if in 1907 in Moscow on the average consumed 6,29 poods of a rye flour on the person, 5,16 poods of wheat flour and 4,75 poods of meat in 1913 of a rye flour there were 5,55 poods, wheaten - 4,85 poods, and meat - 4,59.
Despite lifting observed at that time in the industry, industrialists were not inclined to euphoria. In the report of Council of congresses of representatives of the industry and the trade presented to the government, it was told:
“ In the industry after variety of years of crisis and stagnation strong lifting and revival has begun. But at the same time it was found out that this lifting is insufficient that demand for industry products grows in variety of branches faster offers and, unsatisfied with internal manufacture, becomes covered by foreign import. At the same time it was found out that not only in industrial area, but also in the raw materials manufacture which supplier is mainly the agriculture, the lack is observed, and import of a clap, wool, fat, silk and other products grows in an enormous progression “.
In a society the domestic industry quite often abused for its weakness. “ a field “ in particular, asserted that production of the Russian handicraftsman “ still for a long time will not replace our poorly developed and poorly developing fabrichno - the factory industry “.
the Summer of 1913 has stood out roast, and Russians complained about bad quality of kvass. In July “ Exchange sheets “ wrote: “ Huge demand for kvass and drinks, on the one hand, and desire kvasnikov to earn on this business it is as much as possible - with another have caused wide falsification of kvass and its manufacture on saccharin. Whereas usually kvass and other drinks should prepare on treacle... Falsifiers strenuously prepare kvass on saccharin, and meanwhile any of them is not made yet answerable “.
With a heat were other misfortune is connected also - in the European part of the country fires have become frequent. So, on July, 17th in Petersburg court yard and wood yard have burnt down izvozchichi. The splash in street criminality partly connected with aspiration of authorities of the capital to arrange well a city was one more problem exciting Petersburgers in that summer. Newspapers wrote that “ with destruction of Ligovsky parkway, owing to the tram works spent here, all hooligans of this parkway have removed on parkway of the Bypass channel. Hooligans of that parkway have decided not to surrender and in every way to defend the exclusive rights to using all blessings escaped “ Obvodki “. Day by day till eveningam in parkway of the Bypass channel there are fights ligovskih hooligans with partieju hooligans “ Obvodki “. Fight cruelly, starting knifes, sticks and stones “.
As a whole newspapers complained of eternal inconveniences of the Russian life more likely, than concerned any serious problems. The correspondent “ Exchange news “ for example, wrote:
“ Each time when you come back from - for borders to Petersburg, you set to yourself one thousand questions: why at “ them “ life so is convenient, so is adjusted, and at us precisely purposely is made heavy, uncomfortable, constraining? “
other author complained that dealers do by cocaine too big margin:
“ In the beginning I took cocaine in a drugstore and 1 river 10 paid for a tiny bottle in gramme to. There are it at me of 2 grammes a day, i.e. on 2 rivers 2 to. The whole month I paid this money then the druggist it is necessary me has taken pity and has told: “ We to you as to the regular customer, we do a discount and will take on 90 to. For a bottle in one gramme “ “. What indignation of the unfortunate cocaine addict when it was found out was that in a warehouse it is possible to take much cheaper cocaine: “ From me took 20 copeck for gramme! For the same bottle - 20 copecks! Consider, how many I have overpaid the superfluous! “
abounded with sensations like creation in Russia of an airplane " that summer of the newspaper; with transparent wings “ which “ in air it is absolutely not visible “ or occurrences in the device market under the name “ the former of noses “ which “ corrects any ugly form of a nose “ if long to carry it as a muzzle. All the summer long the country stayed in a condition of relative calmness, having a rest after noisy multimonthly celebrations. Disturbing news came only from the Balkans where to that time there was the second Balkan war which has begun in month after end of the first Balkan war. During this war of Russia it was necessary to make a choice between two Balkan allies - Serbia and Bulgaria. After some fluctuations the choice has been made in favour of Serbia and when a year later Belgrad had serious problems in connection with murder ertsgertsoga Ferdinand, Russia already it was necessary to do nothing how to stand up for Serbs up to the end.
“ Russia name stranoju the future “
In August in Kiev the first large action since celebrating of anniversary of House of Romanovs - the first All-Russia Olympic Games has taken place. The power has tried to derive the maximum propaganda benefit from this event, having used the Olympic Games for maintenance of authority of a ruling dynasty. By the head of the Olympic committee has been appointed 22 - lety grand duke Dmitry Pavlovich who should show in Kiev the ability to communicate with the people. In this business it, it is necessary to tell, has shown some resource. Grand duke Gabriel Konstantinovich who has arrived together with it remembered the Olympic Games opening day:
“ After molebna the sports organisations, the Kiev cadets and grammar-school boys passed before Dmitry a ceremonial march. Preliminary we with Dmitry have bypassed their front, and Dmitry greeted them. Me very much interested, as Dmitry will thank for passage of the Kiev grammar-school girls. It left this difficult situation, having told it: “ Well go! “ “.
steamship accident " was other event which has excited Russians in the autumn of that year; Volturno “ transporting emigrants from Rotterdam to New York on which there were many emigrants from Russia. On September, 26th in hold “ Volturno “ there was a fire. The steamship has been equipped “ Marconi`s by wireless telegraph “ so the command could send the distress signal but as the storm at this time stormed, the ships which have approached to the aid long could not come nearer to a vessel suffering disaster. The first Russian steamship " has managed to come nearer; the Tsar “ and perishing emigrants have been rescued.
meanwhile the main events on which destinies of millions people depended, were made under cover of the state secret. In June the Russian newspapers with the big sympathy wrote about the German emperor Wilhelm II who celebrated 25 - letie the reign. “ a field “ wrote that Germany - “ it is the most educated country of our time which do not have illiterate; sanitary conditions in which there live presently the German people, do not know to themselves equal... If Russia name stranoju the future, Germany positively country of the present “. However relations between two empires promptly worsened.
the reasons for this purpose was much. Russia disturbed that Germany, using conditions of the trading contract exclusively favourable to it, actually dominates in the Russian market of the industrial goods. Germany supported Avstro - Hungary which on the Balkans resisted to Serbia. Germany threatened France which was the ally of Russia, and also aspired to strengthen the influence in the Near East where Russia had traditional interests. Though Nikolay II and Wilhelm II on public friendly relations maintained, Russia and Germany kept away from each other more and more.
in the beginning of 1913 Germany has notified Russia that is going to replace head of the military mission in Turkey. But it became known in the autumn that the new head of mission the general Estuary a background Sanders will order the Turkish first case located in Istanbul. It meant that Germany without a uniform shot receives control over passages that Russia could not admit in any way.
Kokovtsov to whom during a stop in Berlin II relation of Russia to this question was entrusted to inform to Wilhelm, has met rigid repulse from the German emperor. Kokovtsov assures of the memoirs that already then has understood that military collision with Germany inevitably:
“ for eight months prior to the beginning of war, during the stay of mine in Berlin, it was obvious that to peace days expires soon a closing date that accident comes nearer true, inevitable step and that a number of the definitive preparatory measures begun still in 1911, i.e. for three years, already closes the terrible cycle, and any peaceful disposition of the Russian emperor or art of figures surrounding it not in a condition more to open the held down chain if will not come true a miracle... Anybody does not learn only that occurred in a shower of a sovereign that minute when, reporting on it in half of November, 1913 on my trip abroad and appointment in Berlin with emperor Wilhelm, I have added my written report with those personal my impressions which have combined in me belief in affinity and inevitability of accident. I have not believed this belief to my written report not to give it publicity even in that limited environment to which my report was accessible. It was known by Minister for Foreign Affairs Sazonov. In all exhaustive detail has learnt it this day and a sovereign. It has never interrupted me for all time of my statement and persistently looked directly to me in the face as though it would like to check up in them sincerity of my words. Then, having turned away to a window at which we sat, he long peered at a boundless sea distance spread before it and, precisely having regained consciousness after drowsiness, again has persistently looked at me and has told: “ On all will divine! “ “
In December of Petersburgers and Muscovites much more the international events excited arrival of well-known comedian Max Lindera. In Petersburg admirers directly at station rasprjagli crew of the idol and have dragged the carriage to a cinema. In Moscow Lindera met not less enthusiastically. The comedian accompanied by crowd rushed across the Kremlin, the Tsar - guns wriggled near and tried to joke in broken French. The Moscow thieves have greeted a foreign star on - to the: at the actor have stolen checks of the Lyons credit for 20 thousand francs.
1913 remained in memory of Russians last serene year just because the real state of affairs was not known to them. Scandals between the Duma and the government during that time seemed a commonplace, about illness of a tsarevitch, appear, to worry was still early, almost nobody knew about a growing role of Rasputina, and with Germany almost nobody thought of prospects of war.
As a whole this year really was successful enough for Russia: the budget have reduced with proficiency, anniversary of a dynasty have noted with an appropriate pomp, large acts of terrorism were not, as there were no also serious natural accidents. But even if successes would be less, and it is more than failures, this year all the same would remember with the warmth, after all begun one year later the bloody nightmare was anyway worse than that was to it.