Alter ekoFlight from village in megacities which was observed throughout many years, in the beginning of this century was replaced by other steady trend: the provided citizens were pulled back to the nature. The so-called ecological component became indispensable attribute of any building project. An ideal variant of a modern life many see in ekoposelenijah though very few people imagines that this such.
the pure West
Is considered that the fashion on ekoposelenija, as well as many other good and bad, has come to Russia from the West. It is disputable enough thought if to consider that one of the very first and most known settlements such was formed in the south of India. And here already more than 40 years in “ a dawn City “ or Auroville, safely live about 2 thousand persons from 35 countries of the world. Anyway, but in 60 - h years of group of adherents have started to organise with different success some kind of “ associations “ Proprietors of country habitation. Round idea of life in non-polluting space there was a community arranging the life on the basis of the concept of a sustainable development. The care of ecology was, however, as a rule, not unique uniting force of community. Frequently proprietors united and unite the general religious, political, cultural and other sort motives. However these motives owing to their variety and specificity in this case can be lowered. As the recognised expert and the researcher ekoposeleny Robert Gilman who has formulated standard definition ekoposelka has made. So, this steady high-grade settlement of people integrated into environment without any harm for last. In this settlement all conditions for steady and healthy development of people both in the present, and in vaguely far future are created. According to inhabitants ekoposelkov, only they are an example development models where the quality combination of life and preservation of natural resources, business and green technologies is possible. Optimum number of settlements which exist today in variety of the European both American countries and which are united in a global network ekoposeleny Global Ecovillage Network, is defined in 50 - 200 persons. Though media popularity was got just by larger communities in 2 thousand and more the person.
In Russia the first ecological settlements have appeared during reorganisation in different parts of the country - “ Kitezh “ in the Kaluga region, “ nevoekovil “ in Kareliya, “ Tiberkul “ in Krasnoyarsk region. Many settlements at the initial stage of the creation received financial grants from the foreign and domestic organisations supporting such initiatives worldwide. The people, creating those ekoposelenija, to that not so much aspiration to more harmonious, rather than in a city induced, lives, how many the social disappointment which has arisen owing to sharp economic and political lomki. The idea of life on the nature moved as a makeweight to “ to the big ideas “ alternative philosophy and an alternative course of life. For example, settlement “ Tiberkul “ it has been created by the followers of Vissariona adhering not only uniform religion, but also uniform veganskogo a way of a food. It is an accessory indispensable condition to a community. As an example of opposite property can serve ekoposelok “ New Lozhok “ constructed near to Novosibirsk academgorodok and different “ total absence of religious or mystical stimulus for self-organising “. In due time it was positioned as the centre of ecological housing construction in Russia, used also for the scientific and research purposes.
Today enthusiasts ekodvizhenija are united mainly by aversion of a city with its stoppers, bad air, a considerable quantity of people, noise and other illnesses. Sellers of the country real estate skilfully play it, ready to rank to ekoposelkam any cottage small town in Moscow suburbs even if it and is insufficiently removed from inhabitants of objects negatively influencing health. Including because of active advertising in consciousness of consumers myths about non-polluting areas and directions have taken roots. But dumps, skotomogilniki, the farms using chemical fertilizers, radar stations, the industrial enterprises, LEP are available on any direction and in any area.
anyway, the Moscow suburbs are considered today the leader on number of offers in this sphere. It speaks economic development and investment appeal of region. The boom ekostroitelstva in Moscow suburbs has had on 2006 - 2007, and until recently experts allocated ekoposelki in a separate segment of the market of country real estate. The characteristic of favorable ecology of settlement moves as a conclusive side benefit. A prefix “ eko “ however, not always reflects essence of the offer, she simply helps to sell houses. And to sell them it is expensive.
according to many ecologists to speak seriously about cleanliness of the ecological environment in the nearest Moscow suburbs it is not necessary. On - to the present the non-polluting territory settles down not less than in 30 - 40 km from MKAD where still there were areas with low technogenic loading and where probably to construct something that will not border on other settlements. Only there, where are surrounded with wood where in the neighbourhood there is a pure reservoir where blow fresh a wind at home, it is possible to speak about building possibility ekoposelenija. To estimate prospects of development of settlement the careful and objective ecological examination is capable only, allowing to define presence in atmosphere oksidov sulfurs, carbon and other toxic components, quality of the water arriving from chinks, degree of contamination of soil and degree of intensity of sources of noise or the vibration, creating physical discomfort for the population ekoposelka.
building should be conducted with observance of the strict sanitary code and be based on a principle of the minimum intervention in environment, it is desirable without heavy machinery. Such direction in building has received the name ekodevelopmenta. Ekodevelopery do not clear away under building a platform, cutting down and levelling everything that disturbs to placing of technics and infrastructure erection, and, on the contrary, whenever possible as much as possible and effectively try to use “ natural “ territory potential - features of a landscape of a site, a wind rose, geography of reservoirs. Instead of asphalting of roads and proezdov in ekoposelkah often use erection of a wooden flooring. Are sometimes used and at all exotic materials, such as permazam, a product of ability to live of bacteria. At building of houses and infrastructures should be used only non-polluting materials. In the most authentic and technological settlements of the house are under construction without use of any glue, a paint, artificial polymeric materials. Roofs cover with a natural tile or even in the manner of the Scandinavian gun carriages cover with a natural grassy lawn. And furniture in such houses frequently order to the companies specialising on work it is exclusive with natural materials.
the resource base
Prominent feature of competent and diligent projects ekoposeleny is solicitous attitude to resources, available developers. In an ideal to what it to itself represents International socially - the ecological union, houses in ekoposelenii should be provided with heat and an electricity only at the expense of renewed energy sources, that is energy of the sun, a wind, thermal waters and so forth the Reality while is far from an ideal. It is necessary to search for conciliatory proposals and to find balance between common sense and care of ecology. Nevertheless ekodevelopment already today reduces requirement for a superfluous infrastructure, saves resources and the finance simultaneously. Ekodevelopment assumes the complex approach to a problem. One of important directions of development of settlement - careful distribution and designing of the foot and transport zones, allowing to lower necessity of using the car and, accordingly, to reduce to a minimum a share of automobile pollution. The considerable role is played by application of power saving up technologies at building and functioning of objects of real estate. Thick walls, tight designs, panoramic glass cover, the water filtration, natural ventilation of dwelling, application of natural biotechnologies for recycling of an organic waste and for increase of fertility of soil - all it helps to save considerable financial assets and to save up the nature. Ekoposelenija distinguishes also orientirovannost on so-called recycling, that is a reuse building and packing materials that allows to reduce quantity of garbage.