To fightWith the beginning of 2010 antialcoholic campaign of the state has passed in a realisation stage. It already compare with similar gorbachevskoj struggle for sobriety. However this time state steps on reduction of consumption of alcohol in our country look much more thought more over. That is not surprising: the primary goal — to reduce consumption in the market which essential part is in an illegal field and to regulation does not give in.
as in the war
the Alcoholic market in Russia - the phenomenon on - to the unique. In our country there is no other consumer market where the share of illegal production makes more than 40 %. The vodka segment is Most indicative in this respect. According to Rosstata, annual level of legal manufacture makes 110 - 130 million has given, whereas volume of realisation of production in retail trade, according to same Rosstata, from year to year does not fall below 170 million has given. For example, in 2008 of all 121 million has been let out has given, and is realised 177 million has given. Last year the volume of output of the legal enterprises has fallen to 112 million level has given, and realisation volume, according to the experts, has remained at former level.
the difference between manufacture and realisation is provided at the expense of illegal production. Thus, only proceeding from the official data, the share of the illegal vodka market makes 30 - 35 %. In a reality it it is considerable above as the part of illegal alcohol in general is not fixed in any way in retail. Thus, the state loses huge money in a kind of the taxes not paid from given production.
that occurs to alcohol consumption - conversation special. By official estimations, consumption of legal alcohol at us now makes more than 10 litres pure ethyl spirit per capita. It is a lot of it or a little? According to World Health Organization (CART), 8 litres per capita are a critical threshold after which alcohol consumption turns to threat for the nation.
however, in the heaviest from the point of view of consumption of alcohol year for the USSR - 1979 - j - this indicator made 10,6 litres of pure spirit per capita. And one cannot say that on a threshold 1980 - h the USSR has appeared on the verge of extinction.
moreover, the existing image at strong hot (first of all vodka) as main source of all troubles now does not correspond to true a little. The matter is that if in the Soviet years the vodka share in consumption total amount made nearby 85 - 88 % in recalculation on pure ethyl spirit now the vodka share was reduced to 60 - 65 %. Share decrease “ white “ Has occurred at the expense of growth of consumption of other kinds of drinks (first of all the beer which volume of output has grown for last 15 years four times, the low alcohol drinks which were absent in the USSR as a class, and wines).
Thus, from the formal point of view alcohol consumption in Russia if and above the norm, established the CART, nekatastrofichno. The trouble, however, that business is not settled by legal alcohol also the people with might and main consumes illegal vodka and, the most terrible, various liquids medical and a household purpose, for the use inside not intended.
“ only cheap alcohol of doubtful quality and a high fortress conducts to alkogolizatsii societies. When the floor - litre 40 - gradusnogo a drink is bought for 40 roubles, and in it only taxes should be not less than 48 roubles, it becomes popular without dependence from age and incomes. It not is norm is, as a matter of fact, social provocation “ - Alexander Glus, the president, chairman of board of directors Nemiroff of Holding considers.
the combination of a considerable quantity of illegal production and a high consumption level (first of all at the expense of ultracheap alcohol in the form of illegal vodka and substitutes) exists in Russia more than 15 years. However seriously to undertake a problem the state has solved actually only last year.
the State measures which purpose is putting in order in the alcoholic market, amaze with scope. It is possible to tell with confidence that concerning the alcoholic market the government for 2009 has accepted decisions more than for the last ten years.
we Will stop on the cores. On the eve of 2009 the president of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev had been signed the decree about creation of Federal Agency of regulation of the alcoholic market. A bit later, in February of last year, there was a decision describing the basic functions of new department.
To satisfaction of participants of the market, in Rosalkogolregulirovanie have transferred almost all basic functions on control over the market. Thus, the long-term epoch of multiple authority (in the person basically Federal tax service, the Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of economic development and trade) at which for control over a turn many departments and simultaneously anybody answered, has come to an end.
the government meeting in which course key offers of Rosalkogolregulirovanija on struggle against the notorious illegal market have been approved on July, 23rd has taken place. The essence of the approved offers of Rosalkogolregulirovanija is simple. In - the first, introduction of the uniform rate of the excise on spirit, alcoholic and spirtosoderzhashchuju production with liquidation of the majority of privileges on excise payment. A measure obviously necessary that any alcohol, and also spirit and various spirtosoderzhashchie liquids (behind a wine and beer exception) were assessed with the identical excise.
In - the second, introduction of licensing of transport transportations of spirit. In - the third, introduction of uniform rules of retail trade by alcohol on all territory of the Russian Federation. In - the fourth, toughening of responsibility for an illegal turn of alcoholic production and, at last, in - the fifth, introduction of floor price of vodka.
it is curious that if measures concerning introduction of the uniform excise or licensing of transport transportations of spirit and caused at a discussion stage certain discussions among members of the government, that, for example, toughening of responsibility for an illegal turn of alcohol all was hotly supported. However all previous years the given measure causing a whole-hearted support everything, and has not been realised.
the meeting on alcoholic subjects at higher level on August, 12th has taken place. In Sochi president Dmitry Medvedev has collected not only members of the government, but also representatives of regional administrations.
At the given meeting besides economic and administrative measures of influence on the illegal market various possibilities of reduction of consumption of alcohol were discussed also. First of all among youth. “ if to speak frankly, alcoholism has got in our country character of national disaster “ - the president has noted, opening meeting. A result of the given action of a steel of the commission on realisation of a series of measures, before considered by the government, and also working out of the concept of a state policy on decrease in scales of abusing by alcohol and preventive maintenance of alcoholism among the country population. At last, the president has declared necessity of introduction of floor price - one more measure, in nuzhnosti which participants of the market within several last years convinced the government. Legal vodka from which the excise and the VAT are paid, now cannot cost cheaper 89 roubles. If the excise and the VAT (and it at calculation with reference to a floor - a litre bottle of vodka at least 48 roubles) not platat, in shop similar “ levak “ it is possible to sell easy for 40 - 50 roubles. It is obvious that legal production, with illegal at the price does not maintain a competition. If to enter floor price unique advantage at illegal production disappears.
“ the first and very much an important point which is swept already up in the market, - serious struggle against a shadow turn has begun. Floor price is entered, - Alexander Glus tells, is very important and correct step. The accessible, poor-quality, not protected, non-technological alcohol formed a great bulk and possibility fast alkogolizatsii the nations. We plan and we hope that all these undertakings will have due development. Processes of legalisation and detenizatsii alcoholic branch are favourable all: To the state, consumers, to legal manufacturers, that is the companies who form the big taxable base, taxes pay, care of quality of a product and its protection against fakes “.
it is obvious as well that retail shops of bodies supervising work should have a basis for removal from a counter of illegal production. With floor price introduction this basis appears.
“ the moderate and pertinent doses of qualitative alcohol is a pleasure of dialogue, it is culture. When there is no access to criminally cheap alcohol, civilised traditions are formed, - the head of company Nemiroff is assured. - If from alcohol all taxes are not paid, it means that it has illegally fallen into web trading networks and nobody will supervise its quality. Such vicious circle from which, I hope turns out, Russia can leave if to continue is system to work in this direction “.
Thus, the state has simultaneously decided to struggle both with the illegal market, and with ultrahigh consumption of alcohol in the country. And unlike previous years, realisation of these measures has not kept itself waiting.
the Most long-awaited measure - floor price introduction - has appeared most simply realised. Rosalkogolregulirovanie the order has entered since January, 1st floor price of a bottle in capacity of 0,5 litres at a rate of 89 roubles. Contrary to expectations, the great bulk of shops observes floor price that became the reason of the general rise in prices in the market. Moreover, vodka has appeared one of the most strongly risen in price goods. By estimates of experts of the Center of development of the Higher school of economy, for 25 days of January consumer prices have on the average grown on 1,7 %, and vodka - on 4 %. Are Even more resolute in the estimations there were analysts ING tracing a rise in prices for the goods in six trading networks. Under their data, vodka and beer have risen in price for 25 %.
Thus, simultaneously with blow on the illegal market realisation one idle time and effectual measures was possible to increase an overall price level by alcohol.
Besides, already to the beginning of 2010 amendments have been made to the government to the current legislation, concerning restrictions of retail trade by alcohol, toughenings of responsibility for its illegal turn and licensing of transport transportations of spirit.
at last, Rosalkogolregulirovaniem has been developed, and by the government is confirmed “ the state policy Concept on decrease in scales of abusing by alcoholic production and preventive maintenance of alcoholism among the population of the Russian Federation “. Its basic problems - decrease in consumption of alcohol by 2020 twice and considerable reduction of the illegal market.
“ The concept is a frame document which now each department is obliged to consider by working out of own programs. Till now there were only separate departmental certificates, and uniform programs were not, - the representative of the Union of manufacturers of alcoholic production Dmitry Dobrov speaks. - Now all who concerns the given problematics, have a reference point “.