Chemistry and life145 years ago, on January, 31st, 1865, chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev has protected the thesis for a doctor`s degree “ About connection of spirit with water “. Scientific work became a basis for the recipe of classical Russian vodka a fortress of 40 degrees. But antialcoholic campaigns in the country have begun much earlier: to the vodka invention in Russia drank grain wine.
wine “ Moscow “
Grain wine, it the spirit diluted to taste, on legends, monks of Chudovo of a monastery have learnt to do in XV century. A secret of distillation of a rewandering mash kept a secret and for walls of the Moscow Kremlin did not let out. Therefore grain wine named “ Moscow “. That allows to consider by right “ the Moscow vodka “ the most ancient domestic brand which has successfully passed a rebrending at last Romanovs.
from Ryurik dynasty and up to now vodka found as furious admirers, and as much irreconcilable opponents. To appeal to sobriety as to norm of life it was necessary to the authorities. To imagine a duality of their position it is possible, having remembered that alcohol sale in imperial Russia was one of the most profitable income items of the country. That is, on the one hand, the budget, with another - a degrading genofund of the nation. A difficult choice.
therefore prior to the beginning of the XX-th century further sermons and cold punishment cells for drunkards business did not go. And here - the First World War, mobilisation, and on front anybody especially does not aspire. To prevent disorders, the imperial government, having offered the budget, has entered in 1914 the Prohibition. However, rules of sale of alcohol has left to the discretion of the provincial authorities. If in some areas the alcohol has disappeared from sale completely in others sales prospered, and together with them and “ alcoholic tourism “. In all provinces without an exception prompt growth of moonshining has begun.
the Box lunch
has been excellent the Prohibition only in 1923 - after representatives of the new power on a private experience were convinced that between absence of vodka and absence of drunkenness of an equal-sign you will not put. And moonshining promptly brought to nothing and without that poor in republic sugar and grain stocks. For struggle against self-racers, and at the same time and with a budgeted deficit manufacture and vodka sale have legalised. With drunkenness have decided to struggle, lifting cultural level of the population by means of propaganda and propagation.
posters, theatrically - show trails over the drunkards, separate “ shameful “ cash desks at the enterprises, antialcoholic exhibitions and books - work was spent the serious. But its results did not look impressively: drank more and more.
rise in prices for alcohol with simultaneous decrease in salaries has appeared effectual measures only. But money began not to suffice not only on vodka, but also on meal. Change of the prices for alcohol has helped to find in due course balance between vodka incomes of the budget and inevitable harm accompanying them - alcoholism. Moonshining thus anywhere has not got to, therefore from time to time the authorities conducted campaigns against self-racers, reminding the population of an antisociality of their activity and advantages of a sober way of life.
Have impaired a little the mute 1960 - e: the experiment allowing the enterprises to increase the salary has been started. As to make the goods any more not steels, in the country deficiency has begun. Everything, except vodka. And here the number of the citizens who have been too carried away in degrees, has sharply grown.
in 1972 with drunkenness have decided to struggle. According to the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Ministerial council of the USSR “ About measures on strengthening of struggle against drunkenness and alcoholism “ have reduced manufacture of a hard liquor, have raised for them the prices and have simultaneously limited quantity of places of their sale and trade time. To make good the loss the budget gathered at the expense of sharp increase in manufacture of wines, beer and soft drinks.
as a result in some republics party program realisation undertook with such eagerness that have simply closed all trade in alcohol. However after sharp reduction of receipt of a trading gain have thought suddenly and have restored a considerable part of pubs and it is wine - vodka shops.
millions roubles have been spent for profile treatment, films, lectures and the books painting serious consequences of a drunk way of life. Nevertheless reports of Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR say that money has spent for nothing. During carrying out of antialcoholic campaign the number of chronic alcoholics only has increased. In 1971 of all have frightened thousand figures 995, but in 1972 their number has reached 1 million 111 thousand, and year later - 1 million 228 thousand In spite of the fact that relatives sick in any ways of their problem hid, as sick-lists to alcoholics did not give out and, accordingly, did not pay “ illness time “.
it is curious, but till 1972 in the USSR there was no medical control of level of sobriety of professional drivers. Spetsosmotr began to spend in taxi parks, at the enterprises, but in small garages drivers on - former quite often left on a line the drunk. To struggle with netrezvostju on roads owed the technician: there were the first “ tubules “ defining alcohol level. In 1974 the Soviet industry could let out only 500 alkotesterov, and Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Internal Affairs asked to lift manufacture at least to 2500 pieces in a year which the countries in scales all the same would remain a drop in the sea.
a notable consequence of antialcoholic campaign 1970 - h became years vodka resale at the raised prices and alcohol falsification. There is no exact data about that, how many money the budget of the USSR has lost as a result. Republics did not hasten to begin wine and beer manufacture incomes from which it is ready below vodka. Drank on - former much: in 1972 - 9,1 l per capita, in 1973 - m - 10,1 l. Wine sale these years has decreased as a whole on the country according to 12,7 to 8,6 l.
perhaps, the most curious for us from this, as to campaign 70 - h, are results of questioning of the citizens who have got to sobering-up stations. Basically they had an average and incomplete secondary education. The overwhelming majority worked as workers or drivers. Only the few had problems in a family. Drank more often after the salary or when there was money.
it is important for us and today as drinking people were distributed under incomes. At whom earnings were either very low, or very high least drank. At 68 % getting to a sobering-up station incomes were at level of a living wage or a little it exceeded. To exist on this money as - that was possible, but neither about accumulation, nor about a speech prosperity did not go. That was not eaten, - was spent on drink.
to cut down a rod
Any new methods of struggle against a bad habit in gorbachevskuju antialcoholic campaign it has not been thought up. In 1985, in two months after occurrence in the country of the new secretary general, the price for vodka have lifted three times, vinodelcheskim to state farms of the south of the USSR have ordered to cut down vineyards. From films cut out feast scenes, nonalcoholic weddings were actively propagandised.
the population discontentedly discussed campaign in multimeter wine turns. Even coupons on vodka have been entered. Citizens have started to pass to the use in colognes and denatured alcohol. Even deficiency of yeast and sugar did not interfere with moonshining blossoming.
As a result and without that slipping of - for the low prices for oil rates of economic growth of the country have decreased, and antialcoholic campaign have quickly curtailed, without having reached desirable results, but having received the negative. Receipts in the budget from trade were reduced in 1986 in comparison with 1985 on 12 mlrd roubles, and in 1987 - for 7 billion From - for losses in manufacture of wine and cultivation of grapes 6,8 billion more
New times have missed have brought also new rules: the state monopoly for trade in alcohol have cancelled. Antialcoholic campaign of 2010 in this sense will be for the country unique experience as in Russia not state companies are engaged in manufacture and alcohol sale.