The risky creditIn the conditions of crisis (MSB) the state and bank support is necessary for small and average business. Meanwhile the volume of given out credits MBS in portfolios of banks is estimated only in hundreds whereas the quantity of small enterprises in St.-Petersburg has already reached 300 thousand About, whether are ready to incur banks the risks, what problems arise at banks at small-scale business crediting, and also why MBS support of the state representatives of the noncommercial organisations is necessary and bank community have discussed within the limits of a forum “ Crediting of small and average business “.
Sergey Fedorov, the chairman of the board of Association of industrialists and businessmen of St.-Petersburg:
it is possible, one of principal causes of low degree of crediting of small-scale business and its development as a whole, high level of administrative barriers which is so high is, what even with support of a member of the city government we not in a condition it to overcome. Now in Petersburg costs an order of 30 percent of industrial platforms, and for the next three years cost of rent of this earth will grow in 10 times. Also by May, 1st of this year all businessmen who are proprietors or rent premises, should give to inspections of the state fire supervision a package of the documents which cost makes 100 thousand roubles. In my opinion, it is the notable sum for MSB. And such examples it is possible to result more many. For this reason for us the main task for today there is a creation of the favorable environment for business development. However, until oil will cost around $70 - 80 for barrel, officials will be a little interested in development MSB of real sector of economy.
Michael Kuritsyn, the chief executive of Fund of assistance to small-scale business crediting:
absence of liquid pledge becomes One of the basic problems for potential borrowers and banks at crediting. If the businessman does not have not enough mortgaging maintenance, our fund is ready to be charged for it in the certain size - to 50 percent from the sum of the credit and to 10 million roubles. Also the fund gives microloans to small-scale business. Banks reluctantly finance businessmen for the sum to 500 thousand roubles, as for them such credits - an unprofitable product. We give to businessmen loans to 600 thousand roubles under 19 % annual for the term up to one year.
in 2009 without our assistance small-scale business would receive less 1,6 mlrd roubles. 75 percent of our guarantees stand out for credits which are involved for replenishment of the basic means, and 25 % - on replenishment of circulating assets. The fund co-operates with 21 bank.
it is natural that with the beginning of crisis volume of crediting by banks the tendency of increase in interest rates with 16 to 22 percent, including under operating contracts has decreased and outlined. But decrease in rates is now observed, and some banks already finance clients under 15 percent. As a whole, banks had money and they are ready to active crediting, but here there is a problem of shortage of the reliable borrower.
Marina Nikolaeva, the chief of department of introduction of new forms of crediting of bank “ Aleksandrovsky “:
One of the main problems whom banks face at small-scale business crediting, - its low legitimacy. Low degree of a transparency of the Russian small-scale business does not allow to analyse and estimate it objectively.
as the accounting reporting of many enterprises is directed on minimisation of tax payments the part of businessmen cannot show necessary official level of the incomes and the solvency.
one more vital issue for banks is absence of mortgaging maintenance. Premises, the equipment, vehicles, as a rule, are rented, and let out production does not possess sufficient degree of liquidity. Earlier our bank in the absence of sufficient maintenance insured risk of a non-return of the credit.
since this year we have signed the cooperation agreement with Fund of assistance to small-scale business crediting. Now our borrowers at a maintenance lack can address in fund for the guarantee, and we can finance small-scale business with insufficient volume of property maintenance.
Natalia Bajnina, the assistant to operating bank “ Inteza “:
the Basic complexities at crediting MSB are connected with opacity of business and absence of the normal account at a considerable part of the small companies owing to what process of the analysis of results of their activity very much becomes complicated. Along with a problem of absence of liquid pledge for all sum of the credit there is a problem of absence of sufficient experience both in the market, and with banks, and also absence necessary for development of activity of own means.
if to speak about decrease in risks each bank uses the tools: one are guided by credit history of the borrower, others show increased requirements to pledge, the third study history of development and dynamics of growth of the enterprise. For bank important accurately and authentically to estimate an enterprise financial position as basic source of repayment of the credit.
it is unconditional, it is necessary to estimate correctly pledge both with legal, and from the market point of view. But performance of all these procedures probably only under condition of an information openness of the potential borrower which undertakes to give full data on the business and will utilise the credit as much as possible effectively according to the declared purpose.
George Kabakov, the head of department on work with corporate clients of bank BFA:
According to the statistical data, 45 percent of owners of the small companies do not wish to expand the business. In the developed countries not less than half of occupied population work in small firms. If in the same America the share of small business exceeds 90 percent in our country it hardly holds out to an indicator in 20 percent.
it Is caused both insufficient stimulation of small business by governmental bodies, and inaccessibility of bank credits. Complexities at crediting MSB arises at once a little: opacity of business, absence of liquid pledge and low financial literacy of businessmen. For reception of the credit enterprise activity should be more or less transparent, and financial indicators are reflected in the reporting.
a following obstacle - absence at small enterprises of liquid actives (real estate, actions, bills) which can be considered as credit maintenance. And, at last, low financial literacy of businessmen which does not allow them to use the credit to the full. That is not all businessmen know about that, how to use the received money resources: many do not understand a condition of reception of the credit or give the incomplete information on the activity.
Alexey Tretjakov, the chairman of Association of small-scale business in sphere of the consumer market of St.-Petersburg:
the Quantity of potential borrowers among subjects of small-scale business is not enough. In my opinion, it is connected by that at MSB the highest administrative risks which it not in a condition to count. For example, during the last years there was no 1,6 thousand stopping pavilions, 2 thousand shops in a zone of responsibility of underground. More recently still was 880 mini - the markets, but in December of last year, according to KERPPiT, them remains 177. And nobody knows, on what branch of business the city government “ will strike “ tomorrow.
the Contribution which does in development and support MSB the committee of economic development, the industrial policy and trade (KERPPiT) is huge and invaluable, however our state structures work in such a manner that while one division of the city government works for small-scale business development, other divisions successfully destroy it. Therefore the situation when in a city from 300 thousand subjects of small-scale business, the quantity of the given out credits is estimated in hundreds, reflects an objective indicator of our economic development.