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We prepare for Unified State Examination. Employment 36. Six steps to the readable composition

We have approached to the last before examination to employment. We remind that we investigated levels of language system, leaning against the book Russian: I understand - I write - I check . Today we will talk about citations and we will sum up.  

the Lesson 36. Citations. Summarising, or Six steps to the readable composition  

Citations - the kind of direct speech representing literal endurances from any statements or compositions, resulted by the author. Unlike actually direct speech, characteristic for the art and publicistic literature, the citation are used basically in scientific and scientifically - publicistic prose where they urged to give reason, develop and confirm thought of the author. On the letter the citation consists in inverted commas and can represent as directly direct speech, and to join in the offer as its part.  

1. If the citation is accompanied by words of the author and represents direct speech on the letter it is made out as direct speech, for example:

1) Belinsky wrote: the nature Creates the person, but develops and forms its society .

2) Than the literature is strong? - questioned in the article Bitter.

3) Language, - Chekhov marked, - should be simple and graceful .

2. If the citation joins in the offer as its part (as a rule, additional), it is quoted and written from a small letter, for example:

Chernyshevsky believed that language development goes after development of national life .

3.   If the citation is resulted not literally on a place of the admission of words the dots are put. We will consider these cases.

1) if the citation is made out as direct speech after words of the author, but thus resulted not from the beginning after a colon or the union that and inverted commas the dots follow, and the citation is written from a small letter, for example:  

Pisarev spoke: … the beauty of language consists is unique in its clearness and expressiveness, that is is exclusive in those qualities which accelerate and facilitate transition of thought from a head of the writer in a head of the reader . (Or: Pisarev said that … beauty of language … );  

2) if the citation is made out as direct speech to author`s words and resulted not from the beginning after inverted commas the dots follow, but the citation begins with a capital letter, as this beginning of all offer, for example:  

… In art simplicity, brevity and clearness is the higher perfection of the form - Tolstoy wrote;  

3) if the citation a part of the offer the text in the middle of the citation on this place the dots are put also is passed. Thus the dots replace with itself not only the passed context, but also punctuation marks, for example:

Belinsky wrote that Pushkin`s verse is noble … it is true to spirit of language . - Here after a word it is noble should was to stand a comma, as this homogeneous predicate, however dots eats this comma;  

4) if the citation the offer part, finishes it and is resulted not up to the end the dots are put in the end of the citation. After closed inverted commas the point, as usual in the end of the offer, for example thus is put:  

Lomonosov wrote that The beauty, velikolepe, force and riches of the Russian language appears enough from books …

4. At citing of the poetic text with observance of lines and stanzas after a colon inverted commas are not put , for example: a leitmotif (what is it? the Dictionary!) Poems Vasily Terkin Tvardovsky words are:  

Fight goes sacred and right,  
Mortal fight not for the sake of glory,  
For the sake of life on the earth.  

Summarizing, or Six steps to the readable composition  

Having disassembled in this book lexicon, stylistics and grammar of the text, we will generalise the known facts and we will deduce certain principles of creation of offers and their registration in the coherent text. We will be helped with it by M.Williams`s Joseph`s mentioned book, from which this remarkable citation: Then, when you transform your initial and chaotic statement into something clearer, you start to understand better and own thoughts. And when you understand own thoughts is better, you express them more clearly when you express them more clearly, you understand them even better - so it and moves: You write and start to think better, you think and start to write better … We should aspire to write texts which let and are far from perfect but which at least are readable in proportion to complexity of their subject and time for their correction . (By the way, the word readable in D.N.Ushakov`s Explanatory dictionary means such that it is easy, pleasant to read .)

I. Write clearly

1. Do the main characters by subjects.  

2. Do their actions by verbal predicates.  

it is less clear: At the very beginning of reading of an essay of F.Iskandera to me were remembered own sensations from the Captain`s daughter A.Pushkin.

it is More clear: Having started to read F.Iskandera`s essay, I have remembered own sensations from the Captain`s daughter A.Pushkin.

3. By analogy to two previous points create from subjects - subject nouns (or personal pronouns) - characters.

AT THE SAME TIME! The priznakovoe noun can:  

to develop a theme in the following offer of a context:

Having started to read F.Iskandera`s essay, I have remembered own sensations from Captain`s daughter A.Pushkin. And further reasonings of the author and it perception heroes of this story were interesting to me.;

) to replace with itself the whole subordinate clause:

I have executed that the teacher asked me. = I have executed the request the teacher.

4. Do not begin the first offer in a context with a passive design.

it is less clear: the Author - the publicist it decided to choose a theme of article of reflexion over image Savelicha and its mutual relations with Grinevym.

it is More clear: the Author - the publicist has chosen a theme of article of reflexion over image Savelicha and its mutual relations with Grinevym.

AT THE SAME TIME! Use a passive design, if:

) in a character role an abstract noun:

Elections are shown on the TV.;

) she offers the co-ordinated sequence of subjects or objects:

(Having started to read an essay to F.Iskandera, I have remembered own sensations from the Captain`s daughter A.Pushkin.) And further to me were interesting reasonings the author and its perception heroes to move this .

5. Correctly use words, grammatical forms of words and the offers influencing sense of a phrase.

the WORD MEANING

Perfect Pugachevym of act were in the opinion of Grineva heavy an act (it is necessary a paronym offence. That expression in the opinion of Grineva means? ).

PRONOUNS

it is less clear: Pushkin has allocated Savelicha peculiar to it (to whom? To Pushkin or Savelichu?) Individuality.

it is More clear:  

1) Pushkin has allocated Savelicha with individuality.  

2) Pushkin has allocated Savelicha with the individuality peculiar to this hero.

3) Pushkin has allocated Savelicha with individuality peculiar to this hero.

VERBAL ADVERBS, VERBAL ADVERB TURNS

it is less clear: Having read the Captain`s daughter Iskandera had own sensations from the story. ( Sensations have read and have arisen .)

it is More clear:

1) Having read the Captain`s daughter , Iskander has made own impression about the characters of the story.

2) When Iskander has read the Captain`s daughter , it had own sensations from the story.

the UNIONS AT HOMOGENEOUS PARTS And HOMOGENEOUS PARTS

it is less clear: Grinev was not afraid (whom?) Also behaved safely with Pugachevym.

it is More clear: Grinev was not afraid of Pugacheva and behaved with it dared.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

it is less clear: to understand this answer, the question should be analysed.

it is More clear:

1) That somebody has understood this answer, the question should be analysed.

2) That to understand this answer, it is necessary to analyse a question.

3) That to understand this answer, you should analyse a question.

  II. Write coherently

1. Pass from given to new . Thus keep characters: moving them further under the text, you move also the familiar information.

Characters are extremely important for readers : readers lean against them to focus the attention to certain messages and to understand, about what the given fragment of the text. If readers feel that the sequence characters is co-ordinated, they will move under the paragraph smoothly. - In this fragment subjects of speech characters and readers who were built in a logic chain.

2. Always, if find it difficult to write at once the offer, especially difficult, think, you want to express what thoughts, and: write down their simple sequence; then connect in the offer, keeping order words and without blacking out a character.

it is less clear: After a victory on elections on the governor pin hopes which it can appear incapable to execute.

This clumsy phrase comprises three thoughts: 1) the new governor has won elections; 2) on it pin hopes; 3) it can not justify them (you have noticed an error in a word combination to execute hopes ?) . In a body - the one-compound offer the subject - a character is blacked logically out: it is possible to ask connect (hopes) with whom? with the governor and after a victory with whom? with the governor.

it is More clear: After a victory the governor on elections on it is pined by hopes which it can and not justify.

3. Allocate logically shock elements of a phrase.

With a logic accent move to the right (to the phrase end):

new in the offer - that information for the sake of which the offer is created and which will develop further in a context (additions, circumstances, explanatory and connecting designs, the additional part standing after main):

the author of the text had a thought, that the reason the turned relations The owner and the servant there can be only a love. (Pay attention to the intensifying particle underlining shock addition in the additional.)

With a logic accent move to the left (to the phrase beginning):

) circumstances - determinants:  

At once, only having started to read F.Iskandera`s essay , I have remembered own sensations from the Captain`s daughter A.Pushkin.;

the subject or other sentence parts beginning the offer at parallel logic communication:

the Author - the publicist has decided to choose a theme of article of reflexion over image Savelicha and its mutual relations with Grinevym. Savelich , according to F.Iskandera, one of the main characters of the story which occurrence he waited with the greatest pleasure . Savelich , are confirmed by the author, was at all slave Grineva, and a master of the situation, and this position was given to it by love to Petrushe.

Always the words standing directly ahead of a punctuation mark are logically allocated in the offer, and also:

) logic accent on a dash place:

However the point of view of the author is interesting and is acknowledgement that the Captain`s daughter - great product , time can have set perusals .

parenthesises:

Savelich, under the statement of the author , was at all slave Grineva.;

isolations:

Iskander remembers that else in the childhood, listening the Captain`s daughter felt perevernutost psychological relations of the owner and the servant.;

the additional, breaking main thing:

it is frequent books which we read in the childhood , it would be desirable then to re-read . (the Logic accent falls on three words: books, (the childhood to re-read . Work over a phrase and make shock words books and () the childhood .)

III. Write harmonously

1. In the information beginning begin the offer with a subject or as soon as possible pass to it.

it is less clear: Thanks to syntactic parallelism ( This hare tulupchik, this love reaching recklessness and fidelity to Petrushe! ), to a rhetorical question and voklitsaniju ( Unless Savelich the slave? Yes it actually a master of the situation! ) Savelich appears at us is convex.

it is More clear: Savelich appears at us is convex thanks to syntactic parallelism ( This hare tulupchik, this love reaching recklessness and fidelity to Petrushe! ) To a rhetorical question and voklitsaniju ( Unless Savelich the slave? Yes it actually a master of the situation! ) .

2. Avoid to interrupt a subject and a predicate with too widespread definitions - participial phrases and additional attributive, pass to a predicate faster.

it is less clear: Savelich, according to F.Iskandera which occurrence he waited with the greatest pleasure one of the main characters of the story.

it is More clear: Savelich , according to F.Iskandera, one of main heroes to move, which occurrence he waited with the greatest pleasure .

3. Avoid to interrupt a predicate and addition (or the circumstance expressed by a noun with a pretext) by too widespread designs, pass to addition and circumstance faster.

it is less clear: Iskander, obviously, searched, in this connection the assumption that, " has been come out; probably, Pushkin itself grieved for such love and fidelity, maybe, nostalgicheski has changed clothes of Arina Rodionovnu in clothes of Savelicha an explanation to perception of relations of characters.

it is More clear: Iskander, obviously, searched for an explanation to such perception of relations of characters in this connection he comes out with the assumption that, probably, Pushkin itself grieved for such love and fidelity, maybe, nostalgicheski has changed clothes of Arina Rodionovnu for clothes of Savelicha .

4. Avoid nanizyvanija identical additional after a body. Break such infinite offer into logic blocks and put an end. Use compound and conjunctionless offers.

it is less clear: the Exposition and the conclusion of the author`s text are logically connected, as both there and there the author spends thought, that the main and invariable recognition of good luck of a literary work is the desire To return to it, to re-read it and to repeat pleasure in this connection we are assured, that the Captain`s daughter for Iskandera - just such product.

it is More clear: the Exposition and the conclusion of the author`s text are logically connected: both there and there the author spends thought that the main and invariable recognition of good luck of a literary work is the desire to return to it, to re-read it and to repeat pleasure . And we are assured that the Captain`s daughter for Iskandera - just such product.

5. Extend the offer with involved and verbal adverb turns, other kinds of isolations, accenting thus the information necessary to you and diversifying style. Avoid thus nanizyvanija participles, as well as nanizyvanija additional parts.

For example, in the offer Iskander remembers that else in the childhood, listening the Captain`s daughter felt comic perevernutost psychological relations of the owner and the servant the verbal adverb turn laconically sends the reader to a subject of attention of the author of an essay.

In the offer the Author - the publicist uses lexical means, peculiar to fiction and promoting interest of the reader to occupied with the author pozitsi and the participial phrase replaces additional, thus in a participial phrase two participles - homogeneous definitions which it is enough for thought expressed by the reviewer.

IV. Write short

1. Delete senseless words.

it is less clear: the Exposition and the conclusion of the author`s text are actually logically connected: Both there and there the author spends thought that the main and invariable recognition of good luck of each concrete literary work is the combination of certain factors which are defined by desire to return to it, to re-read it and to repeat pleasure .

it is More clear: the Exposition and the conclusion of the author`s text are logically connected: both there and there the author spends thought that the main and invariable recognition of good luck of a literary work is the desire to return to it, to re-read it and to repeat pleasure .

2. Delete duplicating categories - pleonasms (gr. pleonasmos an excess), the turns of speech containing superfluous words.

it is less clear: During laboratory researches in May month the membrane became violet colours and shining by sight .

it is More clear: During laboratory researches in May the membrane became violet and shining.

REMEMBER, however, that any lexical a prettiness can belong to author`s style. Work over own style!

3. Avoid kantseljarita.

it is less clear: A.Pushkin`s F.Iskanderom`s Studying of a problem of mutual relations of heroes of product the Captain`s daughter has allowed it (to whom?) To come to a conclusion that owing to the developed reasons at the heart of these mutual relations the love of the servant to the barin lies.

it is More clear: F.Iskander reflects on mutual relations of heroes of product of A.Pushkin the Captain`s daughter also comes to a conclusion that at the heart of these mutual relations the love lies.

4. Replace derivative pretexts, word combinations (including the split predicate), is superfluous long additional in a word.

it is less clear: When you attentively read that you have written to correct style that you should make first of all is to look, whether you use the subjects expressed priznakovymi by nouns instead of the same message to transfer by means of subject nouns.

it is More clear: Editing (When you edit) the text, at first replace priznakovye nouns - subjects on subject.

Here five superfluous designs are curtailed into words:

when you attentively read that you have written - to edit

to correct style - the text

you should make first of all is to look, - whether at first

you use H instead of that, - to replace

that the same message to transfer by means of Y - H on Y

5. Use parenthesises only for thought underlining.

it is less clear: it is probable , some, if one may say so , readers, on - visible , now not absolutely will understand that the author, perhaps , intended to state.

it is More clear: Can be , some readers now not absolutely will understand that the author intended to state.

V. Write it is volume

it would Seem, this point contradicts previous, but actually is not present. Because whatever difficult phrase you have created, if your thought is expressed in it accurately, all offer will be clear, coherent, harmonous and logical.  

to write it is volume, it is necessary to train. Therefore write different offers and texts, add in them, as good seasonings in soup, tracks (as in this offer), speech figures, the various designs creating symmetry of parts of the offer (these are homogeneous parts with the unions and without, the compound sentences, parallel additional parts). Learn to change a phrase rhythm (it is reached by change of grammatical bases, for example, personal on impersonal, joining, conjunctionless communication). Develop internal hearing for what read the good literature more and - write, correct, copy and again write.  

the Master - a class - V.Soloukhin`s offer from the story the Water-lily . Analyse it a molecular structure :  

Silent a mirror a whirlpool which you smash, having jumped headfirst with grassy tender berezhka; Crystal a moisture which streams along a body, washing and cooling each section of a skin; the fish splash at an evening dawn; fogs , creeping away from the river on coastal meadows; spicy smells in thickets of a nettle, a meadow-sweet and mint when you will be arranged in a secluded corner, - and has trembled and has gone obliquely under wide glossy sheet red with white a float .  

VI. Write competently

Study this book. And - never write words which cannot check up!  

Good luck!