“ to Answer terrorism with transformation of public places into fortresses is an awful and inefficient strategy “James Forest, in 2001-2010 heading department of researches of terrorism in the American military academy in Vest - the Point and written some best sellers about terrorists, have told to the correspondent “” to ALAIN MIKLASHEVSKY that is necessary for successful struggle against them.
- After events on September, 11th, 2001 in the USA there were no large acts of terrorism, and attempts to make those either failed, or were prevented. Whether you can explain, in what a basis and the reasons of this success?
- to Experts in the field of terrorism research in the USA all time ask this question. Really, variety of elements is necessary for successful fight against terrorism: effective gathering of a military information and their analysis at local, federal level and at level of states; attraction of local communities and leaders of religious associations; Restriction of financial networks of terrorists and movement of illegal means; law-enforcement activity and judicial system which is transparent and - that the most important thing - enjoys confidence of all members of a society; capable heads and policy principles, and also effective explanatory work in communities, which supported (or support) terrorists.
in a root of all terrorism threat lies, of course, and effective remedies of struggle against it is separated from a situation to a situation, from region to region. The magic formula here is not present. Moreover, not in all cases when the acts of terrorism planned in the USA broke, in it there was a merit of the authorities. In some cases the USA simply carried that acts of terrorism were planned by badly prepared people.
- to What direction of antiterrorist activity of the USA pay the greatest attention - to introduction of agents in the terrorist organisations, to use of means of safety (a videocamera, scanners and other equipment) and to transport and infrastructure control or work with the population?
- the USA, as well as many other countries, adhere to multidimensional antiterrorist strategy. Such approach demands gathering and the analysis of a military information, introduction of agents in terrorist groupings, suppressions of financial transactions, shadowing, safety of borders and so on.
In my opinion, the most important and effective strategy should use influence means: the open and direct dialogue with those who calls for violent acts in reply to the arisen problems, whether it be real or assumed. Until then while the country will not understand with these problems or at least with statements for ideological legality, the terrorism will prosper. The decision of the person on support or terrorism condemnation is accepted on a joint of ideas, perceptions and possibilities.
- and whether probably to estimate, how many means spend the USA for fight against terrorism?
- to Establish, how many approximately spends the federal government for fight against terrorism, of course, probably. However it is not necessary to forget that thousand very effective actions within the limits of fight against terrorism are financed by local authorities and the authorities of states, the charitable organisations, religious associations, local public organisations and so on. It is impossible to count up precisely, how many in general it is spent for fight against terrorism. But the situation in the country after events allows to believe on September, 11th, 2001 that it is enough this volume of financing. But, the truth, some cases of internal terrorism in separate areas USA deserve more steadfast attention.
- if to look at other countries, such as Spain and Great Britain there also there were no large acts of terrorism after that have occurred in 2004 and 2005. Than their success speaks? Whether experience of these countries is similar to experience of the USA?
- As already it was told above, the magic formula, the general recipe of success in effective fight against terrorism does not exist. At the same time there are some main elements which are present - to some extent - at any successful antiterrorist work: the co-ordinated actions on attraction of non-governmental formations (as, for example, leaders of local communities and religious associations); counteraction drastic measures to the financial networks supporting terrorist grouping; Understanding of ideology of terrorists and (that is the most important) why this ideology finds support among separate people or communities whom, without being aggressively adjusted, nevertheless are ready to grant terrorists a refuge, monetary both material support and other vital help.
- there could be at any large airport of the USA an act of terrorism similar to volume what has occurred in Domodedovo?
- Many airport terminals in the USA are so vulnerable, as well as airport terminals in many other parts of the world. Such is the nature of an open society in which the aviatransport system is characterised by availability and convenience to clients. Even after attempt of act of terrorism in one of the airports of Scotland has been some years ago undertaken, the public did not begin to demand, and the government did not begin to establish any physical barriers or additional stages of check in the main halls and waiting rooms of our airports. To answer terrorism with transformation of public places into fortresses is an awful and inefficient strategy.
- many in Russia say now that heads of security services should bear a private responsibility for failure in prevention of act of terrorism. How you think, whether such measures will help?
- Is not present, I would tell to the Russian authorities and the Russian people as a whole that the reactionary approach to terrorism when the accent becomes on that, “ who is guilty “ - absolutely wrong.
solid efforts Are necessary for understanding of the ideological motivation, standing up for acts of terrorism, and that environment which supports this ideology, understanding of problems, podpityvajushchih violence, and those arguments with which young men and women convince themselves that the terrorist violence is necessary and is defensible. Blasting of these justifications and arguments should be an important element of any antiterrorist activity.
Besides, at organizational level it is important to reveal weak spots of the terrorist organisations and to use them. For example, between members of any organisation there is the considerable degree of mistrust caused by distinctions in personal experience and preferences, personal rivalry and other personal contact, and also other factors. Some members of the terrorist organisation can disperse from leaders in questions of strategy, a choice of the purpose, tactics; Others can have doubts and fears concerning the grouping finance as usually terrorist groupings do not have special transparency under the authority of the accounting reporting, and all it can provoke hearings and mistrust in the organisation.
All information similar to these, strengthens antiterrorist strategy, allowing to undermine efficiency of grouping from within.
and at last, kinetic force and the resolute protection of a public order which are enjoying confidence of community, are important and necessary elements of antiterrorist strategy though in itself are not sufficient. All making forces of the country should be used: diplomatic work, information, military, economic, financial, and also investigation and law-enforcement activity - all are important components of universal antiterrorist strategy.