“ At attempt to rape has broken from itself epaulets “65 years ago, in February, 1946, the quantity of the crimes made by soldiers and officers of Red army has sharply increased in the Soviet occupational zone of Germany. As has found out an observer “ the Authorities “ Evgenie Zhirnov, it not in the last instance spoke that employees of a state security, whose problem was to investigate and warn the similar phenomena, have wallowed in larceny, robberies, violence and corruption.
“ murder is made for the purpose of plunder of a pig “
that in the beginning of 1946 in the Soviet zone of occupation of Germany there was a jump of criminal criminality, surprised and did not surprise simultaneously. If to look at an economic situation in the country anything strange that the remained without means of support and irregularly receiving Germans who have remained without means of support a poor ration have gone to plunder and kill more successful and provided compatriots, was not. As hardly it was necessary to be surprised to that the essential contribution to similar crimes was brought by soldiers and officers of Red army, and both continuing to serve, and demobilised or deserting from the parts. At that time in Germany at the expense of the won the most basic were not enriched only and lazy. All the others actively filled up personal material and food reserves before an inevitable meeting with the native land where in manufactured goods stores it was observed either usual emptiness, or improbably high prices if the shop was included into a network of commercial trade. And products in the conditions of a poor harvest and if to speak in plain terms, the next hunger were difficultly extracted even by cards.
surprised only that have not stopped similar splash a little. As a part of the Soviet military authorities a significant amount of employees of the state security obliged among other to provide an order in an occupational zone and to supervise activity of German police consisted rather. In each federal land the operative sector of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs to which operations groups in cities and districts submitted operated. Thus chekistskim the considerable number of officers of military counterspionage " was engaged in maintenance of military units; Smersh “. If to add to it boundary regiments of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs which were used for protection of various Soviet objects, including spetslagerej where the detained nazis contained, but also, participated in the operations spent by operations groups of People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs, rather considerable grouping, capable to suppress any negative phenomena if not with the help chekistskih receptions, a power way turned out. And at the head chekistskoj groupings there was an assistant to the people`s commissar of internal affairs the general - colonel Ivan Serov known for the extreme resoluteness.
however figures testified that criminals in most cases remained unpunished. For example, on February, 27th, 1946 the chief of an operations group on the Leipzig district the lieutenant colonel P.Kolomejtsev reported on the chief opersektora on a federal land Saxony the general - to major S. Klepovu:
“ lately on the Leipzig district as from outside criminally - a criminal element from among Germans, together with from military men of Red Army cases of robberies, marauding, murders of civilians have become frequent. If in January of this year took place: robbery cases - 16, marauding - 28, murders were not, in February of this year the percent of these displays has considerably increased: cases of murders - 11, a robbery - 83, marauding - 131. The crimes made by military men of Red Army: it is killed - 5 people, robbery cases - 3, marauding - 53. The crimes made by a criminal element from among Germans: it is killed - 6 people, robbery cases - 80, marauding - 78 “.
Similar distribution looked rather conditional, after all in the same report of Kolomejtseva it was noticed that guilty are not established and not found:
“ 03. 02. 46 years in mountains. Oshats, in the street Shenevitserveg, in a cellar d. N 1 4 corpses who have appeared have been found out: Rajter Anna - 83 year of birth, the native and the inhabitant of Oshats, Shtann Elfrida - 1917 year of birth, daughter Rajter Anna, Shtann Otto - 1919 year of birth, relative Rajter Anna, Shnel Arthur - 1900 year of birth, the native and the inhabitant Dresden, relative Rajter Anna. In the course of a consequence it is established that the persons set forth above are killed from a pistol of calibre of 7,65 mm. On a scene of crime the military regimentals of the form of Red Army are revealed. Murder is made for the purpose of plunder from a shed of a pig in weight about 120 kg. Guilty the committed crime are not established...
14. 02. 46 years to Leipzig in 23 - 00 on Galisheshtrasse military men of Red Army had been stopped Muller Charles from whom unknown persons at check of documents have withdrawn hours. Search of malefactors of positive results has not given “.
Germans as the lieutenant colonel P.Kolomejtsev informed, spoke and about other crimes:
“ Citizen Gejseler working in syndicate of brown coal, in the presence of a number of persons has declared:
“ Now with approach of darkness to street it is impossible to leave, because Russian gangsters do not give pass, look, with darkness approach that becomes. Four weeks ago two unknown Russian soldiers have dragged on a hippodrome 2 - h girls, have raped them and have plundered.
On Sofnenshtrasse two Russian patrols have stopped 2 - h the men, one of them have killed and have plundered, and the old man have released home.
Not so long ago I went in tram N 10, one Russian drunk soldier with passengers has got dispute then has snatched out a pistol and began to shoot, but thanks to vigorous resistance of passengers anybody from us has not suffered “.
11. 02. 46 years citizen Dege Erih living on Niderfrankenitshtrasse, following to Chemnitz, in the presence of a number of passengers has declared:
“ these days between Hemnitsem and Leipzig along the line trains have rushed into the car of 4 Russian soldiers and have started to plunder passengers. One woman was pulled to a brake that stop a train, but at this time its one soldier a shot from the automatic machine has killed “ “.
“ withdrawal of things and values " Began to prosper;
Further the situation changed a little, and absence of serious successes in struggle against criminality in the Soviet occupational zone it was possible to write off on captured officers of a state security a personnel neurosis. In March, 1946 national commissariats have transformed to the ministries, in chekistskih circles obosnovanno expected changes which have not kept itself waiting. In a state security Narcofloor-mat have poured in “ Smersh “ and head of military counterspionage the general - colonel Victor Abakumov has headed the new Ministry of state security. After that numerous personnel shifts have really followed, Abakumov has started to expand sphere of the influence, insisting on transfer from the Ministry of Internal Affairs in MGB all operative structures in the occupied Germany, and by the end of 1946 has achieved the.
here only, judging by the report sent on September, 23rd, 1946 by the deputy chief of the Erfurtsky district operations group by the major K. Local to the deputy minister of a state security the general - to colonel N. Kovalchuku, the main reason of inactivity of officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs consisted absolutely in other:
“ After a victory over Hitlerite Germany us, workers “ Smersh “ sent in various operative sektory the People`s Commissariat of Internal Affairs organised in Germany, including in opersektor a federal land Thuringia I where has been appointed by the chief of investigatory department of sector have arrived also. From the very beginning of work in sector us, workers “ Smersh “ have accepted with neglect and at instructing work process declared that we, smershevskie workers, are spoilt by war and to work solidly we are not able that so supposedly will primitively not work more, now you not in “ Smersh “... It is necessary to work more solidly, legendirovat, to combine and etc. Such instructing usually would spend. nach. A staff of sector the major tov. Priests, the same line spent and nach. Sectors the general - the major t. Bezhanov. It has actually turned out absolutely on the contrary. Work practice in sector was the most primitive, and no deep secret-service work existed, prevailed “ work “ hands and other means, but to a lesser degree a head. After such “ instructing “ operative workers parted on operative groups and since then have been given to itself and spent a line to Germany in most cases at own discretion. In a current 6 - 8 months the sector management supervised over operations groups by phone, and the real practical help almost at all did not render. Control by activity by operations groups was absent. The mainstream in work was on withdrawal of a fascist active - blokljajterov and above, and the assessment of works was defined by quantity directed in spetslager this contingent. Original competition in a direction in spetslager has begun, and superiority in it was occupied with the chief of an operations group Arnshtadt captain Sorokin (now it is dismissed for drunkenness and disorder). Subsequently it has appeared that separate groups increased the account on delivery in spetslager and at the expense of purchase nach. Camp spirits. In it captain Sorokin differed. And it is not casual nach. Camp on one of operative meetings of chiefs of operations groups on the attention to the question brought to its how you accept spetskontingent, has impudently declared: depending on quantity and quality of sent cognac “.
As major Nizov wrote, absence of control and race behind lime indicators has led to decomposition of officers of a state security:
“ Against mass withdrawal of a fascist active and absence of control of actions of operative groups withdrawal of things and values and assignment by their operative structure together with translators began to prosper. Resolute blow on these abusings in due time have not put, and were on occasion limited ugovarivanijami or translated from one group in another. So it was with the chief of an operations group Eisenach which even was engaged in gamble by cigarettes in Berlin on which earned ten thousand roubles, but were limited to transfer in sector. The chief of operative group of Langezaltsa has surrounded itself with the suspicious Germans, to one of them has given out the official certificate both has allowed to carry a pistol and was engaged in local population robberies. Besides, tov. Vasilev was the main supplier of motor vehicles, for what has got respect at nach. Sectors, in responsibility has not been involved, and the site - nach is translated on more responsible. Operations groups Eisenach where continued to idle (only now has been dismissed) “.
Thus as numerous documents testify, officers of a state security did not limit themselves in what and anything. For example, mass arrests of prosperous peasants after which of their manors all cattle disappeared were made. And even such formal occasion was used for masking of withdrawal of values no means always. After all security officers behaved so as if it permits all.
for example, the history about which the military public prosecutor of the earth Thuringia was written fulfilling duties of the military commandant of area Shtadtroda by major Vasilev testified to it:
“ 19 - go July of this year in mountains. Ejzenberg military men of OKR SMERSH 40 - j istrebitelno - the anti-tank brigade RGK deployed in mountains. Naumburg, the senior lieutenant Pshenichnikov and captain Dorofeyev, have offered Germans... To sit down in the car and to show a residence of the criminal secretary of mountains. Ejzenberg the mister of Shilling to whom the above-stated Germans also went “.
Officers have not thought up anything better how to bring the girls, appeared translators of the Soviet commandant`s office, in wood and to rape. Pshenichnikovu it was possible to make it without problems. And the girl who has got to Dorofeyev, has escaped and has run in depth of wood. The captain shot to it following, but has not got. Then officers have gone to make up missed - have gone to the German which daughter considered trouble-free.
“ after all it, - it was told in the report, - captain Dorofeyev (and should notice that to - n Dorofeyev at attempt to rape has broken from itself epaulets that proves to be true many witnesses), the senior l - nt Pshenichnikov, lieutenant colonel Skorynin... And one more officer have come into apartment to the owner likernoj f - ki g - well Richter and have settled down to spend the night “.
But the father of family was against such corporal generosity concerning winners:
“ Between Richter, his daughter and captain Dorofeyev the dispute which has overstepped the limits permitted, has inflamed - Richter has struck the daughter, captain Dorofeyev has tried to strike a glass Richter`s wife. About the happened the chief of hospital 5250 major Kovalchuk has learnt. Having surrounded the house in which there were officers, major Kovalchuk has suggested them to leave the house and has demanded from them an explanation. Captain Dorofeyev has jumped out from the house and has made a shot in the item of the sergeant the Trojan and when the item the sergeant the Trojan has tried to hide for a corner, captain Dorofeyev has made the second shot, the item the sergeant the Trojan in the answer has shot at air. After finding-out major Kovalchuk managed to put in order the above-stated officers. 20. 7. 46 years by me has been sent pom. nach. A staff captain Tychina for finding-out of circumstances and essence of business. During investigation together with major Kovalchuk in hospital were the representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs on mountains. Ejzenberg l - nt Demidov and captain Dorofeyev - both in a condition of strong intoxication. Lieutenant Demidov, breaking a subordination and charters, began to wear the vulgar words of major Kovalchuk and captain Tychinu, having declared that the unique power in mountains. Ejzenberg is it, and therefore he forbids to appear to someone from workers of commandant`s office in mountains. Ejzenberg... “
“ Money has not handed over and has hidden from the account “
the Similar behaviour of lieutenant Demidov at all was not a consequence of valiant self-confidence. As documents testify, by then in chekistskih divisions in Germany there was the structure of the mutual relations which have been not provided by any official documents. In November, 1946 under tribunal three officers opersektora MGB in Thuringia - major Z. Gabdrakipov, the senior lieutenant A. Kamaljan and guards captain S. Mkrtychev have got, whose adventures were described in a sentence:
“ Gabdrakipov, being the chief of an operations group of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of district Grajts, on an extent from second half of 1945 and till September of m - ts 1946, abusing the office position, in the mercenary purposes made searches and withdrawal of property and values at arrested persons and the detained persons whom appropriated and squandered, so:
In June of m - tse 1945 during a search and arrest of German Lipold - it has been withdrawn 22 thousand marks. Lipold from - under guards has been released, the specified sum of the money withdrawn from it has not been returned. In the beginning of December, 1945 by defendant Kamaljan the German the Poseur from whom it has been withdrawn 84 thousand marks has been arrested. The specified sum has not been brought in the inventory, and Kamaljan has transferred its Gabdrakipovu, last in a financial part has not handed over this money and has hidden from the account. In total, thus, Gabdrakipov has illegally appropriated 127 thousand marks. From the specified sum Gabdrakipov already in the course of a legal investigation has brought in cash desk fin. Department of 47 347 marks. Gabdrakipov has illegally spent 56 663 marks on different hoz. Needs of an operations group. Other money in the sum of 22 999 marks has spent for the personal needs.
various things withdrawn from arrested persons and the values arriving in an operations group, were not considered and squandered. In September of m - tse 1945 Gabdrakipov himself personally in female prison of mountains. Gogenlejben has withdrawn a casket with different values in which was over 100 various subjects, in that Number a gold watch - 10 pieces, bracelets 20 pieces and etc. Withdrawal of the specified values have been made without any official registration of papers, and Gabdrakipov of value has not handed over in fin. Department. 40 subjects, including small things: earrings, rings also have been etc. handed over in fin. Department. In September of m - tse 1946, i.e. after a year, other values Gabdrakipov has squandered... For time of Gabdrakipovym specified also 6 automobile motor vehicles have been withdrawn from the Germans arrested by an operations group. One of cars “ Mercedes - Bens “ Gabdrakipov has appropriated, having issued its fictitious documents. Two motor vehicles in the form of gifts have been given by it to one of workers Leningrad UMVD (the surname is not established), the second car has been given the commandant of road to lieutenant colonel Shibrovu. Other 3 motor vehicles at the moment of absence of Gabdrakipova in an operations group have been sold to Germans by its assistant Kamaljan for 11 thousand marks “.
not less interesting there was also a chief of search department opersektora Mkrtychev about whom major Nizov in the statement wrote to the deputy minister of a state security:
“ the Search department differed propensity to withdrawal of things and values and to their assignment and began to carry the name not search department, and department “ plunder bureau “. Captain Mkrtychev absolutely frankly said to everything that to it has bothered to supply with big rolls of the chief of sector and his wife “.
During court it is circumstance it was not mentioned. But the minister of a state security Abakumov has decided to receive the compromising evidence on the foes from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the general - the major G.Bezhanova have arrested. And its former subordinates have started to give extensive frank evidences.
“ In January, 1946, - it was told in the bill of particulars on business of Bezhanova and others, - under instructions of Bezhanova by the former employee opersektora captain Mkrtychevym the inhabitant of mountains has been arrested without presence of compromising materials. Leipzig - Margulis from whom at arrest it has been withdrawn 42 thousand DM and a considerable quantity of values. Before recruitment Margulis was held in custody over 5 months and Bezhanovym who has broken to it a set of false teeth was beaten personally. At Margulis`s clearing to it have not been returned: 32 thousand marks, 2 brilliants a number of jewelry also is changed. After that Margulis has been enlisted and went under tasks to the western zone of Germany twice. Having admitted this fact, Bezhanov has shown: “ Any materials concerning Margulis at me was not, in this connection after returning in mountains. Weimar I have beaten it... And, without having achieved any indications, has been compelled to release it. But to disguise illegality of the actions, has enlisted Margulis as the agent and has directed it to the American zone “ “.
Thus the general demanded money and gifts not only from arrested persons, but also at subordinates:
“ Witness Gabdrakipov about assignment of things and values of Bezhanovym on a confrontation with the last has shown: “ In the end of July, 1945 to me to an operations group there came the chief of investigatory department opersektora Bottoms. Reporting on it of business, I have told that the casket is withdrawn from arrested person Shtark with values. He has told that will report on Bezhanovu, and I will receive instructions how to arrive with them... Being in Weimar, I together with Local have come into an office of Bezhanova which took from me a casket and have started to consider values. In the course of this survey Bezhanov has told that one of these days to it there comes the wife and that it even does not have any gift to present to it. Among values there was ladies` wrist watch from gold, obodok them and a bracelet has been covered by jewels. Bottoms has suggested Bezhanovu to leave these hours, and it has retained them “. On a confrontation with Gabdrakipovym Bezhanov this fact also has confirmed “.
But gifts of subordinates have appeared only small part of the big business of general Bezhanova:
“ it is documentary established that in June, 1945 Bezhanov has opened in mountains. Weimar incomes of sale of beer Bezhanov used brewery which was served by Germans, and both for needs of operative sector, and for personal enrichment. In the same purposes Bezhanov used the suburban economy organised by it, receiving from the last wool, transferred to German factories, and finished goods appropriated. Being it is interrogated on this question, Bezhanov has shown: “ Having lodged in mountains. Weimar and having occupied a country house belonging to the large local brewer, I have ordered to the workers subordinated to me to bring on it valuable things and furniture. Simultaneously I have imposed a hand on a suburban economy with brewery. The started brewery developed beer which was on sale to restaurants of a city and military units “. And further: “ Wool went to German firms which manufactured woollen fabrics of high quality and various colours. Partially woollen fabrics have been appropriated also by me “ “.
At such business loading of time for serious operative affairs did not suffice. So in opersektore began to fabricate a frank linden:
“ a number of the facts when persons without the slightest grounds were late Is established and by beating them forced to give invented evidences about cooperation with foreign reconnaissance bodies or participation in the underground organisations. So, in March, 1946 an operations group of mountains. Gildburghauzen without everyones on that the basis the group of Germans in number of 36 persons who behind an absence of proof of structure of a crime from - under guards have been released subsequently has been arrested. In January, 1946 an operations group of mountains. Erfurt have been arrested on suspicion in participation in the underground organisation “ Vervolf “ 8 Germans whom also after a long imprisonment and beatings have been released. In total on opersektoru 10 persons have been stopped behind an absence of proof of structure of a crime of 137 affairs on 306 persons, from them, being in custody, have committed suicide “.
Business continued to remain the main business of general Bezhanova and further. As has found out a consequence, it, as a matter of fact, became the partner of the owner of porcelain factory. The general helped the partner fuel, products and transport, and that paid services by porcelain services a part from which Bezhanov took to itself, and the others gave to the high-ranking patrons. So in a corruption chain it has appeared far not last link.
“ has transferred approximately 30 kgs of gold “
Even more interesting details became known after interrogations of the former chief Berlin opersektora the general - major A. Sidneva arrested during proceeding hardware war between MGB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. To it charged with assignment of trophy values - bracelets with brilliants, a ladies` handbag from pure gold, 15 gold watch, 42 gold kulonov, a necklace, brooches, earrings and chains, 15 gold rings and other gold things. And the list of the things taken out from Germany the then looked simply grandiosely:
“ 32 expensive fur products, 178 fur skins, 1500 metres of high-quality woollen, silk, velvet fabrics and other materials, 405 steams of ladies` stockings, 78 steams of footwear, 296 subjects of clothes “.
the General repented, recognised assignment and the subjects of art found at it, and also participation in waste of Rejhsbanka of 80 million marks found in cellars. Thus it pressed that not only stole, but also shared with the heads - the general - colonel Serovym:
“ Completely being conscious of guilt before party and the state for crimes which I have made in Germany, I would ask to consider only that over me stood SEROV which, being my chief, not only have not straightened out me, and, on the contrary, encouraged this robbery and I made profit in much bolshej degrees, than. Hardly there will be such person who was in Germany and would not know that SEROV was, as a matter of fact, the main bigwig as regards assignment stolen. Plane SEROVA constantly plied between Berlin and Moscow, delivering without examination on border any valuable property, furs, carpets, pictures and jewelry for SEROVA. With the same cargo to Moscow SEROV sent cars and motor vehicles. It is necessary to tell that SEROV the dishonest operations spent very skilfully. Directing trophy property from Germany to Soviet Union for delivery in state fund, SEROV under cover of it a considerable quantity of values and things took to itself... “
Sidnev named also concrete figures:
“ SEROV regularly sent to me the secretary TUZHLOVA with the notes containing instructions to give out this or that sum of money. In such illegal order SEROV only from me has received about one million DM... Along with that that the basic part of the withdrawn gold, brilliants and other values surrendered in the State bank, SEROV has ordered to me best gold things to transfer to it directly. Following these instructions, I raznovremenno have transferred in device SEROVA in products approximately 30 kgs of gold and other values. SEROV to me said that he sends all these values to Moscow, however I know that over ten most expensive gold products SEROV took to myself “.
All it testified to that, as Serov was not last link in a corruption chain. Sidnev told:
“ Should tell that SEROV gave a lot of attention to acquisition of various things and subjects for presentation of gifts to any communications. In these purposes SEROV has made in subordinates to me automobile repair shops 5 - 6 special radio-gramophones. SEROV where - that has found the German technician who has specially developed a design of radio-gramophones and has made drawings, and SEROV personally corrected them. The tree for manufacturing of radio-gramophones has been torn off from walls of an office of Hitler in imperial office “.
Who exactly patronised Serovu, Sidnev, most likely, did not know and named the friend of the chief of marshal Zhukov. To receive the complete list to the minister of a state security it was not possible - to it and have not given the permission to arrest of Serova. Mass arrests zavorovavshihsja security officers in Germany also has not followed. On November, 14th, 1947 partorg opersektora the earths Saxonys - Angalt captain A. Zadorozhnyj complained to a management to Berlin and in Central Committee VKP ():
“ Byv. The chief of district department Altmark major Tolstoy had at district a part-time farm - 14 cows, 75 sheep, 25 pigs, 7 telok, 1 bull, 2 horses, 3 geese, it in 1946 has found a warehouse of sugar about 35 tons. The part-time farm and sugar are spent without any account, and, under the statement of communists, the majority from this was spent by major Tolstoy in the personal mercenary purposes. All knew about it, and anybody did not accept measures, only in the end of January, 1947 on my insisting office investigation has been made. All it has proved to be true. Tolstoy is recalled to the USSR, on a party line the material is sent in a place of its sending out on business... In March - April business byv has been opened. The chief of district department of mountains. Ejsleben Merzeburgsky district of captain Usmanov. Last did not work, and was engaged in gamble, used the office position - took from merchants and the trading organisations the goods and pereprodaval them, has sold nearby 10 - ti the automobile cars which have been selected at Germans... On captain Usmanov on old business the material for bringing to account is sent... If these old affairs have ended and did not repeat now, it would be possible not to lift these questions. But a trouble all that these affairs repeat and to this day. So, for example: the former deputy The personnel manager major Panfilov to me has told that on materials of investigation which he spent on Kalashnikov and Dergachev`s affairs, the last show that in district Altmark where earlier major Tolstoy was the chief, and now lieutenant colonel Denisenko also disgraces and use of office position in the mercenary purposes " till this moment proceed;.
People replaced, and time and again later, but corruption so anywhere and did not disappear. After all in the debugged mechanism it is possible to change some time separate small screws - it does not affect work of system in any way.