Roads to themselves are more expensivethe President of Russia considers building of highways by the expensive, and the government increases financing of this building. Thus old zatratnuju system of development of assignments do not change. Forms applied in the developed countries it is state - private partnership will concern only paid roads which in Russia every year will be more and more.
from above 700 mlrd rbl. - this sum the Russian government intends to spend in 2011 for needs of a road economy. According to the deputy minister of the finance Alexander Novak, the federal budget will allocate approximately 360 mlrd rbl., still almost as much - regions. It means that only the federal part of expenses will grow in comparison with 2010 on 20,8 %.
As have explained “ to Money “ in Federal road agency (Rosavtodor), financing priorities have changed also: If earlier the government concentrated on input in a system of new roads since 2011 it has decided to put in order an existing network. “ for anybody not a secret that for last eight years financing of the maintenance, repair and major repairs of roads was carried out within 30 % from the confirmed specifications. As a result for today less than 40 % of roads correspond to specifications “ - tells zamrukovoditelja Rosavtodora Innokenty Alafinov. As he said, completely to leave on standard financial maintenance of federal roads it is planned in 2014. For this purpose in 2011 - m in the area of Rosavtodora the federal budget will spend for repair of old roads 88 mlrd rbl., and 11,7 more mlrd the state company " will receive; the Russian highways “ (GK “ Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “) . On reconstruction and building of new roads in 2011 - m it is planned 148 mlrd rbl., and GK “ Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “ will receive on these purposes 54 mlrd rbl.
the Economical budget
All this money will gather directly from users of highways through revived system of the road funds new taxes and increase of excises to gasoline will be which source. As have told in Rosavtodore, the basis of federal road fund will be made by a transfer of the general tax system which is fixed in the Budgetary code in the sum 242 mlrd rbl. According to the Ministry of Finance, it almost on 25 % less than last year`s federal assignments for a road economy. Regional road funds will appear since 2012 and will be formed at the expense of the transport tax and excises to oil products which already now make an order 2 rbl. on fuel litre, and in 2011 - 2013 excises on gasoline will grow for 3 rbl. “ The rouble of 2011 will arrive in federal road fund, rouble of 2012 - in regional funds, and the rouble of 2013 will be divided fifty-fifty between federal and regional funds “ - tells Innokenty Alafinov.
Besides, road funds will receive incomes of earth rent in tap strips, from joining to roads of objects of service, granting servitutov under highways and of some other sources. It is a question, for example, of a payment from lorries in weight from above 12 t. “ it is important that now all money which will be paid by citizens on these norms, in the end of the year will not leave in the general coin box of the budget, and will pass to the next year and to be spent exclusively for highways “ - mister Alafinov considers.
to Master all
Meanwhile open there is a question on efficiency of an expenditure of these means: Comparison of cost of a construction of roads in Russia with similar buildings in Europe and the USA has in the end of the last year surprised even the president of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev. Dorozhniki explain it features of the Russian legislation and accounting and assert that if to subtract from the estimate of an expense for the repayment of the earths and territory preparation under building, our roads leave is not more expensive at all than the foreign.
to redeem the earths in Russia not so it is simple. As appears from the report of Ministry of Transport on FTSP “ Development of transport system “ in 2010 dorozhniki could master only 72 % of the allocated money. Worst of all performance of works goes near Sochi where the Olympic objects are under construction: from allocated the federal budget 10,5 mlrd rbl. on M road - 27 Dzhubga - Sochi dorozhnikami masters only half, and from 28,5 mlrd rbl. in Sochi - only 8,1 billion In the report of Ministry of Transport are directly specified in buildings of the doubler of the Resort prospectus also the guilty: Administration of Krasnodar territory which has broken terms of withdrawal of the ground areas, and GK “ Olimpstroj “ not confirmed a territory lay-out under building of the Olympic objects.
in Rosavtodore troubles in it do not see. “ really, summer of the decision of the president of the Russian Federation on a stop of the works connected with building of a line through the Khimki wood, have frozen an order 2 mlrd rbl. from Investment fund, and 1 more mlrd rbl. at us zavis because of trials en face on carrying out of competitions and unfair contractors “ - mister Alafinov has told. He also recognised presence “ separate problems “ on objects in Sochi, but has noticed that the decision on them is already found. “ we have given not used part of means in the state company end of the year “ Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “ with the subsequent return to current 2011. As a whole schedules across Sochi are carried out “ - has added zamrukovoditelja Rosavtodora, resulting in acknowledgement that fact that the International Olympic committee after visiting of objects “ has highly appreciated the done work regarding highways “.
On rise in price of a construction of roads, according to officials, influence and technical standards operating in Russia. Here most a vivid example: the Russian highway should have a roadside in width 3,5 - 3,75 m whereas in the West it at all is absent. This specification has remained since the Soviet power when at a construction of roads the special strip for a cartage was allocated. “ unfortunately, some specifications operate with 70 - h years of the last century, and they rigid enough, but it is necessary to notice that they are calculated on comfortable enough movement on them. You know that on our two-way road three automobile cars " quite can go; - tells Innokenty Alafinov. As he said, within the limits of the Customs union already there is a work on harmonisation of some standards, and Ministry of Transport the offers already “ has brought for public discussion “ however in Rosavtodore recognise that “ discussion will not be a lung “ and even under the most modest plans of department to finish this discussion it will be possible in any way before the end of 2011.
also notorious federal law N 94 of which already many years publicly complain road officials till now is not corrected. According to this law competitions for choice contractors on building and repair work are won by that company which will offer the lowest price, thus any qualifying requirements to participants of competitions is not shown. There was a whole kind of business on vyigryvaniju road competitions with the subsequent transfer of the order on subpodrjad.
According to sources in the building market, all system of designing and building of infrastructural objects in Russia is adjusted on estimate increase. “ project institutes obtain reward for the performed works in the form of percent from the project estimate, the most expensive project from all possible therefore affirms, - the interlocutor " tells; Money “ on the condition of anonymity. - then when the project arrives to builders, they already on a place make optimum decisions, and the turned out delta leaves in pockets and builders, and officials who support a similar course of things “. As an example it results the tunnel project under the Leningrad prospectus in Moscow from street Alabjana to Big Academic: to construct a platform would be cheaper, rather than to construct a tunnel which is passing under the Zamoskvoretsky line of the underground and tracks, taking into account complication - passages of a channel of underground small river.
we Pay twice
At comparison of expenses and quantities of kilometres on which the billions allocated with the government have, other priorities of the state become obvious also. Least, as usual, will get to roads of regional value, which in Russia over 1 million in km: for kilometre of these roads in 2011 it will be spent on the average 350 thousand rbl. In the area of Rosavtodora in which management is an order of 49 thousand in km of federal highways, in recalculation on 1 km it will be directed on the average on 4,8 million rbl., whereas GK “ Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “ will receive on each kilometre about 32,8 million rbl., that is almost seven times it is more. The basic difference between these two organisations consists that “ Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “ it urged to be engaged in paid roads, and Rosavtodor will continue to maintain the free. That fact that transferred GK " is remarkable also; Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “ the M line - 4 “ Don “ Which half should become paid, almost all is reconstructed last year by forces of Rosavtodora which have spent for these purposes 20,2 mlrd rbl. of federal money. It means that motorists will pay all for roads once again.
it is necessary to hope only that quality of journey on paid roads will be above. At least, only official representatives of a new state company which assumes to use almost all forms also speak about it is state - private partnership at operation of paid sites. The concession mechanism will be applied to building of new roads, and on already constructed so-called camera contracts will be entered. According to the vice-president of board “ Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “ Alexander Nosova, the company pays to such operator for service in the road maintenance, and the operator establishes the necessary equipment and provides appropriate operation of road, transferring all incomes collected from citizens in a state company. According to mister Nosova, the investment of the operator into the equipment under the first such contract on the M line - 4 “ Don “ will make an order ˆ100 million “ the Size of profitableness of investments will be defined on competition, as a starting condition the rate of 13 % as which we consider fair, proceeding from current market conditions of the financial markets and from the conditions of the contract which are not providing putting on of risks of the traffic on the operator " is taken; - adds zampredpravlenija “ Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “. But if incomes of payment gathering appear above settlement sizes, the operator will be come by a part and from this supertarget profit of the company so the operator will be interested to increase a gain from the site transferred to it.
road for foreigners
Conditions of the first competition on the camera contract on a site of a line of M - 4 “ Don “ assume that the company - the participant should possess management experience by paid roads. However in Russia there is no such company, except, perhaps, most “ Society for the Promotion of Motoring and Road Improvement “ which now operates the only thing 52 - a kilometre paid site on the same line on border of Lipetsk and Voronezh areas. “ in practice any western company without the Russian partner on such competition does not leave, - mister Nosov explains. - competition conditions so are formulated that to the specified requirement there should correspond the founder of the participant of the competition, 25 % of its shares owning not less or actions. That is it is quite probable that the Russian company and even with a controlling interest " becomes other founder;. And the existing paid site, as he said, is maintained “ in a pilot mode “ and also it will be included in the first camera contract.
for highways under construction from zero the traditional type of concessions too not always is applicable. “ On roads with low intensity or on roads with difficultly predicted intensity of movement which ring highways where it is objectively difficult to market to take up risks of the traffic, for example, concern, the second type of concessions assuming return of investments kontsessionera not at the expense of gathering of a payment from users, and at the expense of the operational payments paid by the state " is applied; - mister Nosov explains, adding that thus the road can be both paid, and free.
similar long-term contracts at which the contractor will be responsible for all cycle of designing, buildings and road maintenances, it is planned to apply and to free roads. Of Rosavtodore assure that “ after acceptance of some it is standard - legal certificates “ it too becomes possible, but concrete terms do not name. However, according to Alexander Nosova, without basic change of system position hardly will improve. “ In my opinion, only direct financial participation of investors and the building companies will allow to develop qualitatively a situation in branch and liquidates a situation at which at all participants of an industrial chain - project institutes, the contractors, the maintaining organisations - are not present interest either in economy of money, or in long-term result of works “ - he believes.
anyway within 2011 each Russian automobile owner will have a possibility to check up all these words in practice: it will be possible to pass on a paid site, and it is possible - on the free doubler.