The patina of angelsIn 2011 Venice marks a millenium muranskogo glasses. Certainly, it is impossible to define more exact date of its birth; the first historical document confirming existence in Venice of own glass workshops, concerns to H to a century.
Venetian - muranskoe - glass is very original. However, as well as all art of Venice. Glass art has connected an antique heritage and art of the Constantinople glass blowers who have inherited rich Arabian traditions.
under the pretext of protection of a city against fires (though such danger really existed, the desire was the main reason to save up skill secrets) in 1291 all glass-blowing workshops have translated on the island Murano located in the Venetian lagoon. Approximately during the same moment Venice has strongly grasped monopoly for manufacture of glass in Europe, which was considered (and was) precious.
Muransky glass from - for features of the structure very plastically - from it blew, pulled, it svivali and moulded, but not granili as it will do later in Germany. In products of XIII century the painted glass and modelled details is already used. In XV - XVI centuries the glory muranskogo glasses becomes really triumphal. On time this blossoming coincides with Renaissance and mannerism that forces to concern these cups, to vases and jugs is even more serious. Them presented during the state visits, and nowadays museums are proud of them.
on - visible, and rare that it is possible to find the most precious in museum collections, these are cups - ships. On thin graceful legs the sailing vessels completely made of glass have stiffened; even vanty are stuck together from thin glass threads. Drank from them through a tubule in a rostrum; though a principal value of these vessels - to amaze and admire. On - visible, in Russia similar is only in memorial estate “ Kuskovo “; at auctions such curiosities do not come across. Vessels for drink in the form of birds, whales, tritons and lions, belltowers and butts are known also.
the collector occasionally can meet bowls on strong legs and glasses in the form of funnels on the basis with modelled details. Bowls often did in the technician mille fiori - slices from “ thousand colours “ glass or the multi-colour colour cords alloyed together. In legs of cups from transparent glass cristallo the white or colour thread twisted by a spiral - " is visible; the Venetian thread “ which in a XVIII-th century will reproduce and in Russia. Similar products can cost at world auctions ˆ15 - 20 thousand
In a XVII-th century tastes in Europe began to change - together with a baroque epoch the fashion includes massive German crystal which it is possible granit and to engrave. Utonchenno - maneristichnaja production muranskih has started to fall back into the shadow of workshops. However, the Venetian masters managed to defend the superiority in adjacent areas - manufacturing of chandeliers and mirrors.
the Venetian chandeliers with exaggerated horns - bells both modelled petals and tapes used considerable demand at court of Louis XV. However, and here all were soon spoilt by Bohemia and classicism - and chandeliers have entered into a fashion with sparkling cut suspension brackets.
in XVI century in Venice have started to do mirrors - the Venetian masters the first could receive integral glass sheet. Under glass enclosed a foil, and a frame too did of glass - gold mosaic or modelled, with florets, fruit or it is thin the drawing put on glass.
it is known that at the very beginning of a XVII-th century the Venetian envoy has brought Marias Medicis as a wedding gift a mirror in size with the book - and it there was really an imperial gift. The monopoly kept to a XVIII-th century when muranskie mirrors have been forced out German and English. Muransky mirrors XVII - meet XVIII centuries at auctions - they can cost ˆ100 - 150 thousand
the XIX-th century Beginning became tragic for history muranskogo glasses. Besides that Napoleonic armies occupied Venice and have burnt all workshops on island Murano so in 1814 the city has departed to Habsburg Austrian empire - naturally, patronising own bogemskomu to glass. Only gradual revival of old decorative traditions has begun with the XIX-th century middle.
the Venetian biennials of art (the first has passed in 1895) have forced artists - of masters of the whole world (called nowadays designers) to pay attention to island Murano glass. One designers worked (and continue to work) in more or less traditional style. Others - made use of thousand-year experience to create vanguard works.
In 1950 Edzhidio Kostantini has created a workshop in which has suggested to work to eminent artists and professional muranskim steklodelam. Jean Konto adoring ancient glass, names this masterful Kostantini " a bit later; the Smithy of angels “. Certainly, art, inherently, eksperimentatorskaja the workshop would be ruined in due course - if it did not take under the wing American galeristka Peggi Guggenhajm. She bought works and arranged exhibitions, and here then muranskim of glass were fond all.
with Edzhidio Kostantini the Italian designer Ettore Sottsass, the artist - mozaist as Rikkardo Likata, fashion designer Pierre Cardin, Japanese designer Joichi Ohira and Finnish Tapio Virkkala worked. Besides that designers - the invention has carried away the largest artists, such as Hans Arp, Pablo Picasso and Marc Chagall. Under their sketches the sculpture also became. Today similar objects can cost ten thousand dollars.
Modern artists willingly work with muranskim glass. Known designers brothers of Kampana have made on Murano a series of vases of colour glass, and also the certain monumental object similar to a bunch of glass bells hanging down from a ceiling on which they were inspired by atmosphere of Venice. The French artist Jean - Michel Otonel was inspired by the Venetian beads and beads - only has increased them till the enormous size. It posesses input registration in one of stations of the Parisian underground, covered with huge multi-coloured beads. Large installations - sculptures of these designers are on sale in galleries of the modern art and at auctions for $50 - 100 thousand