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Questions What to sell? to whom to sell? where to sell? and how to sell? are for the companies basic. Because all other questions - the manufacture organisation, innovative process, control system construction - follow from them.

To whom to compete
to define a place with which it is possible to occupy in the market, it is necessary to estimate soberly the strategic position in relation to competitors. Who from them will be the competitor number one? The problem seems idle time only at first sight. For example, for Leningrad optiko - mechanical association (LOMO) it can be Olympus, can be Krasnogorsky optiko - mechanical factory, and there can be Chinese companies. Depending on the answer to this question strategy can be under construction absolutely on - to a miscellaneous.
many Russian managers consider that their main competitors - other domestic companies. Meanwhile the share of the market at the foreign companies is insignificant, but the next years the large foreign companies possessing enormous resources and experience become the main threat for the Russian companies. In process of exhaustion of devaluation effect their pressure upon the Russian manufacturers will increase.
in many branches active presence of foreign competitors - already a reality. For example, in tobacco branch keep independence of foreign tobacco holdings only the Don tobacco nevo - tobacco and the Balkan star . In the confectionery market with might and main manage Nestle and Cadbury. With the transnational companies the majority of the Russian companies struggles for the share of the market.
However, there is one more threat which is underestimated by the domestic companies: Chineses with their cheap production which on quality at times does not concede the Russian. Director LOMO Arcady Kobitsky : Certainly to compete with Olympus or Pentax it is difficult. Though we do products quite good, they simply have gone further... For example, today it is necessary to let out the equipment for endoskopii from TV - the image, and we to make it yet in a condition. But to us has carried: Westerners have stopped release of the elementary endoskopov. And we have occupied this market; besides, we do spare parts for their repair endoskopov. We let out the elementary microscopes, but already now we leave on more difficult devices, differently not to sustain a competition to China.

Composed struggle
Mentioning a problem of a choice of the geographical market, a competitive product and a niche with which the company intends to occupy, we closely approach to a formulation produktovo - market strategy of the enterprise. These are rules on which there are relations of firm with the environment, finally reduced to the decision of four questions of principle: What to sell? to whom to sell? where to sell? and how to sell? . By working out produktovo - market strategy and comparison of the company with the company - the competitor can follow the scheme 1.

What to sell
First of all it is necessary to estimate competitiveness of own production: what goods possess the best consumer properties in comparison with competitors or at the minimum costs can be lifted to their level.
the Czech company of Skoda Holding a. s. In 1999 was in predbankrotnom a condition. The analysis has shown that on the majority biznesov backlog from the basic competitors in the world market (General Electric, Siemens and etc.) So strong, what even by means of large investments with them not to catch up. The new command of managers has made decision to reduce quantity biznesov with 44 to 24, and then in general to ten. Thanks to concentration of resources of Skoda could develop more dynamically remained biznesy, investing in service and engineering that in a complex with manufacturing of the equipment it is important for potential customers. What quantity of the goods to advance on the market - one product or to use the multigrocery approach - depends on degree of a saturation of separate segments of the market. So, in the USA 1 million commodity positions of the consumer nomenclature is.
on the average a supermarket it is presented about 40 thousand commodity positions. (Thus the average American family satisfies the requirements by means of 150 commodity positions.) Russia to a similar variety it is still far. In such situation deducing of new marks is an aspiration to stake out a place in constantly extending market. For example, the company Vimm - the Bill - Dann (VBD) has started to advance a new all-Russian brand Cheerful molochnik though on the positioning it is similar to other brands VBD - the Darling Is lovely and the Small house in village . To the Same strategy adheres, for example, and Petersburg Troy - Ultra letting out juice and owning marks Troy Gold the Segment and Sokovichok which plans creation of a new brand. A problem that expenses for promotion of new mark big, and marks of this Petersburg company already presented in the market are not so known to the consumer.

to Whom to sell
Who your target buyer - a wide range of people or corporate clients or defined (it is possible, rather narrow) group? Depending on that the company is able to do better competitors, she chooses one of base strategy - leadership on costs differentiation and the focused differentiation .
If there is a possibility to make will be cheaper than competitors strategy ", most likely, is selected; leadership on costs . It is sale of homogeneous production (for example, beer or cigarettes) to a wide range of buyers. The prize in competitive struggle is reached by minimisation of costs. So the brewing company " operates, for example; Baltic . Production Baltic it is focused on maximum a wide range of buyers (only beer Parnassus Positioned as a drink of class Premium, it is allocated in a separate trade mark). Having the industrial base advanced in Russia, Baltic actively invests in the enterprises which will allow to lower production cost price (for example, in own enterprise for malt manufacture). It is indicative that investments into brand creation Baltic in 2000 there were several times smaller, than investments into manufacture. It means that Baltic has chosen leadership strategy on costs.
if the manufacturer invested means in creation of unique mark or several marks, strategy " gets out; differentiation - creation for each group of buyers of separate type of production or a separate brand (the company Vienna - beer Tuborg Gold Label and Neva ) .
Positioning in one segment of the market allows the company to receive the greatest rate of return at the expense of uniqueness of a product, that is to apply strategy focused, or nishevoj, differentiations . Under mark Guinness one grade of dark beer - Guinness Draught in pouring and Guinness Extra Stout in bottles and banks is issued only. On narrow enough segment of the market of fans of very dark beer 10 million mugs (almost 5 million litres) Guinness daily is on sale. Strategy of the focused differentiation is good that in most cases for its realisation is required less than investment expenses, than for other.
the Russian not raw companies, entering the international markets, work there in very narrow niches, at times finding them it is casual. The history with the camera " is widely known; LOMO - the Compact all rights to which sale were got by group of the Austrian teenagers who have created club of photographers - LOMOgrafov . Annual sales of these chambers reach 10 thousand pieces. Other niche of sale - devices of night vision for bicyclists - has been found from giving of the Italian colleagues, and house telescopes - the American marketing company LOMO - America. The Irbitsky motorcycle factory, whose basic markets - the USA, Germany and Italy, has concentrated on a niche a retro : a heavy motorcycle Ural Mountains - an exact copy of a motorcycle of BMW which were issued in 1950 - e years.
among the Russian companies working in home market, nishevaja strategy yet has not received special distribution. While they aspire to capture all grocery ruler and to occupy the maximum quantity of segments of the market. Occurrence of the Russian highly specialised companies like Guinness or Perrier - future business when the competition will become tougher, and the market will be divided into narrower segments.
the Choice of target segments is a question of resources and a competent estimation of own strategic position. At those home producers who competes basically to the Russian companies while there are resources for development of wide scale of products. At a choice of the focused strategy of capacity of home market, as a rule, does not suffice. To expand sales volume it is possible by an exit on a foreign market, however it sharply increases costs by goods advancement.

where to sell
the Normal way of development of the company - to grow to scales of the national leader, and already then to enter the international market or to strengthen the positions on the national. However happens so that an exit on a foreign market - a unique way of a survival. In such situation there were many enterprises VPK after disintegration of the USSR.
For example, Verhnesaldinsky metallurgical production association (VSMPO) - the enterprise largest in Russia for manufacture of half-finished products from the titan for an aircraft industry. By 1992 consumption of the titan in Russia was reduced in 30 times. And for two years before on factory the new director Vladislav Tetjuhin has come. He has chosen the unique strategy - reorientation to the western commodity markets. it was clear, to what all goes. Also it was necessary to break there that you recognised and have wanted to work with you. Here to wait for financing it was useless - so Vladislav Tetjuhin gives reason for a strategy choice.
today VSMPO - the supplier number of one titan for Airbus (70 % of requirement) and number two - for Boeing (17 % of requirement) though to 1990 100 % of production went on home market. Secrets of success VSMPO does not hide: there was a usual marketing work - trips, presentations, certification... Vladislav Tetjuhin: In 1997 we have travelled almost all aviamanufacturers, everywhere did presentations. Actually, we have begun not with these firms, and from their contractors. Distances it on test the materials. They were pleasant to them. Also have on the sly started to extend... And in 1998 Boeing has concluded with us the contract for five years.
In a similar situation when sale in the country sharply there was a Petersburg Open Society Morion making quartz resonators. For five years general director Jacob Vorohovsky managed to lift in 30 times productivity on Morione there is one of divisions of television factory of a name Kozitsky, and on 90 % to update production assortment. Jacob Vorohovsky: At us were all problems of the Soviet enterprise: crisis of non-payments, the debts, four months of not paid salary, a large quantity of nothing doing people. On 1400 persons occupied the monthly sales volume made $50 thousand We now so much for two days we earn, and works only 570 persons. to Reach it it was possible only thanks to an exit on the markets of the USA, Canada and the Western Europe where 70 % of production " are now exported; Moriona .
However not all are in so severe constraints. If to set to the director of the Russian company making consumer products, a question: Why you do not leave on the all-Russian or international markets, and are content with the regional? the answer will be simple: And what for to spend huge means, to enter the western market where a high competition and the experts knowing this market are necessary? The market of consumer goods grows in Russia on 25 % a year, here a low competition and we perfectly know the consumer .

How to sell
Each company independently defines strategy in the field of sales management and a choice of channels of distribution. It is dictated by logic of business, production characteristics, presence of resources and requirements of buyers. The correct choice of the channel of distribution can create additional competitive advantages to the company, provide to it access to the important marketing information and etc.
the Manufacturer of industrial technics company Caterpillar sells the of a tractor, dredges and etc. only through own dealer network. The cumulative turn of dealers worldwide is twice more than turn most Caterpillar - $27 mlrd in a year at dealers against $14 mlrd at Caterpillar in the middle of 1990 - h years. Partner relations with dealers provided Caterpillar and the basic competitive advantage - possibility of replacement of any detail in an every spot on the globe within 24 hours. Besides, dealers know about needs of consumers more than Caterpillar so, the company essentially saves on marketing researches.
the Petersburg manufacturer of lady`s wear the May Day dawn having studied, as the western companies of a similar profile work, has gone by the way of creation of a network of firm shops. Then priorities have a little changed, and the emphasis has been made on development of firm sections in department stores. Galina Sintsova, the director of Joint-Stock Company the May Day dawn : we were engaged in Trading sections because the shops the expensive. Besides sales volume increase firm shops have allowed to collect great volume of the marketing information on consumers, to create club of steady customers and to organise base for approbation of new collections and models.

to Study on competitors
To be one step away ahead of the competitors and to win in competitive struggle it is possible, if the company knows that the one whom it is going to overtake does. And thus understands that is possible and it is necessary to improve. Comparison of the strategy used by competitors, allows to solve own problems successfully.
the analysis produktovo - market strategy of the western machine-building companies shows that about half of incomes they receive not from equipment sale, and from service, with this equipment connected (installation, services in repair and etc.) . For example, the largest world manufacturer of chisel equipment National Oilwell has about 150 service centres worldwide.
the Russian companies gradually learn in art to earn on accompanying services. For example, in the West norm is presence at gasoline station mini - a market where it is possible to buy oil, spare parts, beer, cigarettes and etc. With occurrence in Russia of refuellings of companies Neste and Shell the domestic oil companies too began to equip the gas stations on the western samples. And the company YUKOS has got recently a retail chain store system Copeck . The YUKOS plans to enclose in it in $2002 100 million more and to construct the supermarkets combined with the gas station.
however blind copying of steps of competitors conceals in itself dangers. For example, one Russian company making automobile electronics, has found a simple way of formation of the assortimentnoj rulers. She watches closely what goods throw out on the Russian market polskie, the Czech and Hungarian competitors. And at once begins release of the same products, but at lower price. Minimisation of expenses on market research turns around dependence on competitors - if those are mistaken in marketing decisions will involuntarily sink the intellectual successors .
IGOR SHELUHIN , adviser issledovatelsko - consulting firm the Alto

Questions which it is necessary to answer by working out produktovo - market strategy