Russia remains without handsYesterday representatives of the International organisation of work (SQUANDERER) at conference in Moscow have declared that Russia is on a threshold “ social explosion “ caused by the compelled illegality of labour migration: from total number “ guest workers “ working in Russia, legal make no more than 10 %. Thus working conditions of a considerable part of migrants can be defined as “ forced labour “.
At the conference spent yesterday under the direction of the chief executive SQUANDERER Kari Tapioly, the situation was discussed with migration to Russia. The basic reports were done by the representatives the SQUANDERER investigating position of migrants from Ukraine, of Tajikistan, Kirghizia, Moldova, Kirghizia, and also representatives of social departments of these countries, employers and trade unions.
Characterizing scale and dynamics of migratory processes, participants of conference resulted figures which allow to estimate a situation as close to the catastrophic. For July, 1st, 2005 in Russia was all 457 thousand legal migrants. Citizens of Ukraine make 36 % of them, Kazakhstan - 12,6 %, Azerbaijan - 3,6 %, China - 3,1 %. Number of illegal migrants, by estimations of researchers the SQUANDERER, makes from 5 million to 14 million persons. It about 10 % of the population of the Russian Federation and to 20 % of able-bodied population. And illegal character of the Russian import of work is programmed: in 2006 the quota of attraction of legal migrants to Russia makes only 329,3 thousand permissions.
Elena Tjurjukanova, the leading research assistant of Institute socially - economic problems of the population of the Russian Academy of Sciences, specifies that in 2006 - 2016 Russia will appear in an adverse situation - “ Under the optimistical forecast, number of able-bodied population will start to decrease for 800 thousand persons a year, and on pessimistic - on 1,5 million “ (that is 1 - 2 % a year. - ), and without labour attraction from outside to it not to manage in any way.
experts the SQUANDERER consider that if full liberalisation of migration will not occur, the Russian Federation will lose to other importers of labour, first of all EU, in a competition for migrants who so are necessary for it, and it becomes the factor limiting economic growth. They notice that thus it is necessary to Russia “ to solve and absolutely not economic problems “ - to struggle with xenophobia, to conduct propaganda campaigns and etc.
the SQUANDERER hopes that the conditions of migration established by the government, will be changed - otherwise to Russia threatens “ social explosion “. The matter is that the overwhelming majority of migrants now is occupied in shadow sector and working conditions of a considerable part of migrants fall under definition “ forced labour “ and “ human trafic “ is it has been shown on an example of migrants from Ukraine, from Moldova and Tajikistan.
the Russian government, seemingly, well understands scale of a problem of labour migration, mister Tapiola has noted. In number “ serious steps “ in the field of its permission he has mentioned preparation of the new migratory concept providing, in particular, considerable decrease of administrative barriers by the government of Russia, interfering labour attraction. The experiment spent by Federal migratory service (FMS) in ten regions, - " has been noted also; mini - amnesty “ in which course in a category of legal migrants it has been translated 7 thousand persons. However, that the next years this experience is planned to extend all over the country, will not rescue a situation - according to FMS, “ under amnesty “ will get about 1 million illegal immigrants mainly from the CIS countries, that is no more than 20 % of migrants.
the SQUANDERER has declared that assumes to create together with Russia new “ the national project “ - “ the National plan of action on struggle against human trafic and forced labour “. This document will be prepared in 2007 - 2009.