Brutal carsFor last 20 years Russia has lost world leadership in pilotless aircraft. Nevertheless the industry has kept development potential, and civil customers can generate solvent demand. Pilotless aviation systems (BASS) - nowadays the most dynamical segment of a world aviation market. Last forecast of American consulting company Teal Group estimates the market bespilotnikov in $30 mlrd the next decade. Annual universal expenses on acquisition of pilotless systems will increase from $2 mlrd in 2005 to $4,5 mlrd in 2014.
the attention of the Pentagon
the Greatest influence on volume and dynamics of the market of pilotless systems is rendered by the technical policy of the Pentagon. According to Teal Group, the next decade the USA will provide 75 % of universal investments into pilotless technologies and 60 % of their purchases. Speeding up of pilotless programs has followed after the analysis of experience of operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. During the period with 1988 for 2001 mid-annual financing the BASS has made $302 million of the military budget of the USA And this year the Pentagon has allocated for their working out and purchase already $2,6 billion It is expected that this sum will come nearer to 2009 to $3,5 billion last year the Minister of Defence of the USA has bought about 400 pilotless flying machines (BPLA) 20 types.
averaged BPLA, delivered today in armies, the tactical scout with the piston engine represents. Thus the weight bespilotnika makes 50 - 200 kg, speed of flight - to 300 km/ ch, and radius of action to 200 km. Cost of the similar device usually does not exceed $500 thousand Price of all pilotless complex with several devices and management point fluctuates in a range from $5 million to $20 million Now in the world is under construction and maintained an order of 300 types such BPLA. In a separate direction creation mikrobpla, relatives in the sizes to insects was allocated. For example, at the Californian institute of technology the microdevice " is developed; the Bat “ (its weight only 10), equipped with the tiny chamber and the transmitter.
consecutive development of idea of the patrolling scout has led to creation in the USA big BPLA, carrying out operative and strategic problems. Them concern produced in lots RQ - 1 Predator and RQ - 4 Global Hawk. Their radius of action makes according to 1 thousand and 5 thousand in km from base, and duration of patrol exceeds days. As general director GosNiIaS academician Fedosov, the major feature modern marks the BASS - them vstroennost in complex system of investigation.
in the beginning of a new millenium in the USA started a new stage of development the BASS. The Pentagon has ordered the industries “ the weapon of the first day of war “ - the hardly noticeable subsonic planes which are cracking system of air defence and carrying out dangerous shock missions, probability to survive in which less than 0,7. Within the limits of the program “ Uniform pilotless fighting aviation system “ (J - UCAS) companies Northrop Grumman, Boeing and laboratory of applied physics of University of John Hopkins should construct by 2009 pilotless systems with BPLA X - 45C (for the Air Forces) and X - 47B (for aircraft carriers of Naval Forces). Their prototypes in 2002 have already started flight tests. In creation fighting the BASS while France (project Neuron of company Dassault Aviation) is going to challenge leadership of the USA only. However today Europe lags behind America approximately for ten years.
Russia: the reserve is, and money is not present
Now in Russia a small series the unique pilotless military-oriented complex - tactical " is issued and improved; the System - P “. Next year occurrence of its new updating - " is possible; the System - PD “. It is connected first of all by that today in Russia there is no even the program document defining development of pilotless systems for armed forces and other power structures. Thus backlog of Russia in the military pilotless technics - the phenomenon illogical. After all in 60 - 80 - e years of the last century of the USSR the BASS was in the lead in creation. For example, with 1976 for 1989 it has been let out 950 jet BPLA They be 143 that till now remains a world record. Fading of interest to a pilotless theme became appreciable still in the end of 80 - h years when the program " has been actually frozen; the System “.
Only last years in Russia interest to creation of military men the BASS of different function again became more active. Works are conducted in the closed mode that is characteristic for all pilotless subjects. Among similar projects - creation of a multipurpose interspecific pilotless complex on the basis of wide unification on the onboard radio-electronic equipment, a power-plant and to plane systems with uchebno - warplane the Yak - 130. As has declared BG zamgendirektora - technical director OKB of a name Jakovleva Nikolay Dolzhenov, unification will allow to cut down expenses on research and development approximately for 40 %. We will notice that the Yak - 130 is in the same weight category, as perspective American fighting BPLA.
There is a reserve and at OKB Mikoyan`s name which developed various BPLA since 1960. Last known theme - a pilotless fighter - an interceptor of repeated application 901 (1990). Mikojanovsky interceptors intended for struggle against the hardly noticeable purposes and paid off on the level of overloads exceeding physiological possibilities of the person. The head of engineering centre OKB of a name of Mikoyan Vladimir Barkovsky has declared BG that the design office conducts new workings out on pilotless subjects in cooperation with other leading head companies, both Russian, and foreign.
attempts to adjust the international cooperation in the field of pilotless systems undertook and OKB Dry, declared in June, 2003 about creation of thematic working groups with the European corporation EADS.
The same year “ Dry “ MAX - 2003 models of three BPLA has shown on an air show, however on continuation of these works is not informed. Probably, it is connected with transition in OKB a name of Jakovleva of one of leading Russian experts in Nikolay Dolzhenkova`s pilotless systems. However, the general director “ Dry “ Michael Pogosjan repeatedly declared intention to continue work on pilotless systems, including fighting. In turn, the informed sources in Russian OPK as about the positive phenomenon speak about interaction within the limits of pilotless subjects of three leading KB - “ the Instant “ “ the Sou “ and “ the Yak “.
And here prospects “ Tupolev “ look less certain. In 1990 - e years the company showed on air shows skilled BPLA They be 300 “ the Kite “ created within the limits of the program “ the System - F “. However the information on continuation of works is not present, and on an air show MAX - 2005 “ Tupolev “ also has at all refused demonstration of projects BPLA military-oriented.
now in Russia the specific direction of development shock the BASS which assumes re-equipment in pilotless carriers developed a resource or superfluous warplanes is discussed. One of enthusiasts of such approach - head of Ramensky instrument-making KB and association “ tehnokompleks “ Givi Dzhandzhgava. By its estimation, already after 2010 the Russian Air Forces will face deficiency of shock possibilities and then application converted bespilotnikov in returned or disposable a variant can be optimum by criterion efficiency - cost though also makeshift. It is necessary to notice that in spite of the fact that this idea has supporters in the Minister of Defence while further discussions business is not has gone.
the serious player in a niche tactical and operatively - tactical BPLA the concern of a radio structure created in 2004 " aspires to become military-oriented; Vega “. Known developers and manufacturers of such systems have entered Into association. It is scientific research institute “ Kulon “ (the head executor on a complex “ the System - P “) And KB “ the Beam “. As it became known, on MAX - 2005 “ Vega “ is going to show a novelty - created in interests of the Main thing it is rocket - artillery management of the Minister of Defence a tactical complex “ Tipchak “.
At obvious backlog from the USA in working out the military-oriented BASS at leading KB of Russia is essential potential for development on this direction. Perhaps, the commensurable reserve is not present today at one country, behind an exception unless the USA. However possibility of essential progress in creation of military men and, especially, fighting systems depends in the critical image on state financing and prospects international military - industrial alliances.
not Military men the BASS develop in weights under the laws. In such spheres as remote sounding of the earth, control of communications and borders, relaying of signals they reduce the cost price of services on an order and even more in comparison with traditional space or aviation systems. Progress of not military systems is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price of electronic components of the onboard equipment. However on a way of development of pilotless technics of civil application there are three obstacles.
the technical problem consists that potential customers interest not BPLA, let and with unique characteristics, and high-grade systems which carry out certain function and do not demand the qualified service. The second problem is connected with the first and has structural character. The majority of commercial customers would like to buy not pilotless systems, and services (for example, flight hours) from the specialised companies. Obviously, as the first, and the second barrier are surmountable as civil the BASS the large industrial companies having the corresponding resource and experience start to be engaged. Business with overcoming of the third barrier which commercial does not manage while to be overcome the BASS is worse is. It is a question of necessity of creation is standard - legal base for certification BPLA and their integration into an existing control system of air traffic. In a complex this problem is not solved anywhere in the world, despite considerable efforts. For example, in 2004 in the USA organisation Acces - 5, setting as the purpose to integrate into the existing monitoring system and air traffic control commercial BPLA (in particular, civil versions Predator and Global Hawk) has been created. The project budget make $100 million, allocated NASA, and $35 million, given by the interested companies.
now there are two alternative concepts of integration the BASS in air space. One assumes distribution on pilotless systems of all existing norms, including, for example, equipment by systems of the identification and the prevention of collisions. The second concept suggests to allocate special zones for flights BPLA. Such way already have gone in Japan where firm Yamaha serially lets out thousand specialised distantsionno piloted helicopters for processing of farmland and has already adjusted their export to the countries Asian - Pacific region. A victory, according to experts the first point of view that will complicate industry life, most likely, will gain.
today Russia practically is not presented in the international non-governmental organisations where in discussions concepts of certification, standardization and regulations of flights of pilotless technics are created. From the Russian companies only “ Irkut “ is a member of one of leading such structures - UVS International. This situation threatens with repetition of a bitter experience of struggle of our civil aircraft with ecological norms ICAO which, at least partially, it is possible to consider as not tariff barriers on a way of domestic planes.
between military men and businessmen
without waiting Yet creations it is standard - legal base, pilotless systems, on - visible, will buy the structures having special powers. Teal Group in the last forecast on the BASS assumes that their advancement in not military sphere will begin with boundary, police and lesoohrannyh structures. Similar process can be observed and in Russia where the pilotless technics start to buy FSB (for special troops and frontier guards) and the Ministry of Emergency Measures, that is the departments solving with the help the BASS crucial problems. The technical policy of not military customers has the specific features. As a rule, they aspire to get systems, simple and cheap in operation. So, the immigration service and naturalisations of the USA, responsible for control of external boundaries, took in leasing for patrol of border with Mexico Israeli BPLA Hermes 450S though the American companies let out some pilotless systems similar by possibilities for army.
the Russian industry has quickly enough reacted to demand from the state not military customers. Variety of firms last years was developed by projects concerning simple and inexpensive in operation of pilotless systems. Among them Kazan OKB “ the Falcon “ from Soviet period developing BPLA, ENIKS, broken away from “ the Falcon “ and concentrated on small devices, “ Novik the XXI-st century “ which kernel was made by developers of a complex “ the System - P “ and a number of other companies or even groups of enthusiasts. Much of these collectives managed to achieve successes. So, KB “ the Selector “ The Moscow aviation institute has developed for FSB the pilotless helicopter “ the Raven “. “ Novik the XXI-st century “ has created a number mini - BPLA which differ rational aerodynamic and sistemotehnicheskimi decisions. ENIKS has developed two-kilogramme BPLA “ Eleron “ with an electric motor. According to BG, it showed to Vladimir Putin during last trip of the president to the North Caucasus when he has visited one of frontier groups in Dagestan. By the way, as it became known, on an air show MAX - 2005 ENIKS is going to show the civil version “ Elerona “ received index T - 25.
the Majority of the mentioned companies realise innovative model of business and do not possess sufficient financial and administrative resources for a conclusion of production to the market. Accordingly, showing the possibilities, they search for not so much customer, how many the investor. To make it almost it is possible to nobody. Military men do not want to apply import accessories. State structures of type of frontier service or the Ministry of Emergency Measures have no necessary resources. Commercial customers are frightened off by absence standard - legal base. Objectively, large players can correct a situation only.
Concepts while are not present
the Chief 1 - go management of Federal Agency of the defensive order (FSOZ) the general - major SERGEY KOLJADIN has told to correspondent BUSINESS GUIDE about problems of creation of pilotless systems for power structures.
BUSINESS GUIDE: Why Russia which was in the lead in the field of the military pilotless technics, lags behind today many states?
SERGEY KOLJADIN: the Reasons a little. One of them - the big terms of carrying out it is skilled - design works that is caused by insufficient financing, ageing of element base. There are the organizational problems connected with absence of the co-ordinated policy of all power departments on creation of pilotless complexes. We do not have concept and the program document which would reduce together all problems of agents of national security demanding application of pilotless aircraft.
BG: That stirs unifications?
With. K: Absence is standard - legal base on the organisation and carrying out of interdepartmental works. And it concerns not only pilotless devices. The state should not pay some times for same is skilled - design works.
BG: But the Federal Agency of the defensive order just also was created for this purpose, thaty to solve a problem of the uniform customer?
With. K: We try to make it. But it is necessary to consider that we normotvorchestvom are not engaged. Our function - control actions following the results of which carrying out FSOZ should represent offers on updating of standard base, including regarding statement of interdepartmental works. Within the limits of system which is created as a result of administrative reform, there will be no uniform customer in former understanding. Division of functions is as the corner-stone put. One should expose requirements, define volumes and terms. Others - on the basis of these requirements spend contract work. I think that not far off the decision by which the system of contracting which is engaged in contracts and money in interests of all power departments will be created.
BG: But this system hardly will faster work, than old, not differing efficiency. And lungs BPLA it is possible and it is necessary to do quickly...
with. K: There is no complexity in creation most BPLA. But it are required to armed forces not separate bespilotniki. The control system in which they should be entered is necessary. The information from BPLA should reach computers of commanders, up to a platoon.
BG: Who should develop the concept of development of pilotless technics for all power structures?
With. K: the Basic consumer - the Minister of Defence. Its problem - to make the program document which will co-ordinate requirements of all customers of pilotless technics. Such work goes, but it is not finished yet.
BG: And when such document can appear?
With. K: I Think that this year.
interview took SERGEY SOKUT
At first there will be a word
the General director of the State scientific research institute of aviation systems the academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Evgenie FEDOSOV believes that the ideology of fighting use bespilotnikov definitively is not developed. Why so has occurred, he has told to correspondent BUSINESS GUIDE.
BUSINESS GUIDE: What role BPLA in modern war?
Evgenie FEDOSOV: to understand a place of pilotless aircraft, it is necessary to understand model of fighting operations of the XXI-st century. In this context interest represents the analysis of programs of Israel and the USA. At them the pilotless technics - a part of the developed system of the centralised investigation. In Israel this system works within the limits of small territory, and Americans extend it to all globe. And simply to open the purposes today insufficiently. It is necessary to define their co-ordinates with the accuracy providing application of the modern weapon. Therefore prospecting systems are transformed in razvedyvatelno - shock. Accordingly, are created and continuously the complex automated systems of investigation, management, communication, tseleukazanija develop. In the West systems of such class carry generalised name C4I. In their development huge money is put up. In these difficult information systems bespilotnik participates as an element, and requirements to it are formed proceeding from the general problem. The ideology of shock application BPLA is developed and is already tested. However here there are some questions on which clear answers in Russia, abroad are not received yet. The main problem - how to correlate technical possibilities and military art.
BG: Some futurologists predict occurrence of flights of the robots dominating in the field of fight and it. It is real?
E. F: All rests in C4I. The effect about which you speak, depends on progress in creation of the super-power automatic or automated control systems. However, systems of processing of the information develop very quickly. Progress of military workings out is promoted by a transfer of technologies from civil, commercial sphere which often appears less inertial. If intensity in the world accrues, the robotised fighting systems can appear till 2050. But as a whole I believe that in first half of XXI-st century the person will not be excluded from the armed struggle and the pilotless aircraft completely will not replace the piloted.
BG: whether There are a reality pilotless fighters?
E. F: the creation Problem of completely automated fighter aircraft is connected with illumination of air conditions, its estimation, management of group operations. While in air fight military art prevails over technics or, at least, is in the ratio 50 on 50. It is Enough to remember the known law: 20 % of pilots - experts force down 80 % of air targets of the opponent.
BG: how you estimate a place of Russia in sphere of pilotless aircraft?
E. F: Over bespilotnikami for us work for a long time. Tupolevsky workings out began, when abroad was nothing. But all domestic BPLA were specialised. The comprehensive system of investigation at us was not generated. On - to mine, and underestimation of a conceptual part of a problem of development of pilotless aircraft as component of more difficult system today is available. System research should be conducted in Russia about a place and a role of pilotless aircraft. The concept of development which will define characteristics BPLA and control systems is necessary for us. If to speak about concrete classes BPLA the device close by possibilities to American Predator is required to us. I do not know, whether it is necessary to us Global Hawk, as at us and Americans different problems. The theme connected with development of pilotless aircraft of the Air Forces, is set, but while it is a paper theme, conceptual. Our institute unites in this work of self-pilots - “ Dry “ “ Tupolev “ the Instant. Bespilotniki are necessary not only the Air Forces, but also to other kinds of armed forces (VS), FSB, to other departments. Thus in each kind VS there can be different pilotless means. But in all cases it is necessary to understand, what problems and in what system BPLA will solve.
interview took SERGEY SOKUT
the Ministry of Emergency Measures not can without robots
the Ministry of Emergency Measures is in the lead in development robototehnicheskih technologies and can become the first large state customer of pilotless systems. The director of department of the prevention of emergency situations of the Ministry of Emergency Measures MICHAEL FALEEV has told about the technical policy of the ministry to correspondent BUSINESS GUIDE.
BUSINESS GUIDE: the Ministry of Emergency Measures really have a requirement for pilotless systems or the aspiration not to lag behind progress is available?
MICHAEL FALEEV: Five years ago the Ministry of Emergency Measures has developed the development program robototehnicheskih technologies. Its embodiment in life has begun with overland robots, for investigation in chemically and radiatsionno the polluted places. These technologies have justified themselves in variety of failures. We have come to a conclusion that in many cases the robotics defines our ability to solve a task in view. At a following stage under our order submersibles have been developed. Now we give special attention to pilotless flying machines (BPLA) though requirement for them felt both earlier, and, maybe, even in a greater degree, than in other robotics.
BG: What problems will solve pilotless systems?
M. F: In - the first, carrying out of search works in the big territories, for example at a flying machine crash landing. We initially wanted to solve this problem by means of BPLA. And in - the second, in connection with an aggravation of terrorist danger there was a requirement to make BPLA also flying laboratories which can define presence of those chemical or radioactive substances in the disaster centre. These two problems have been reflected in our technical projects on their working out.
BG: Why among robototehnicheskih systems of Ministry of Emergency Measures BPLA have appeared only on the third place?
M. F: In view of novelty and complexity of search works in this sphere. BPLA, created in Soviet period, us essentially did not arrange neither on technologies of management, nor by information possibilities. For example, they did not have a co-ordinate definition, and for a binding of the image to a card the qualified experts were necessary. It was unacceptable for us. Our devices should be as much as possible simple. They should join in existing technology poiskovo - salvage operations. If we have seen suitable devices earlier, them would buy. On the other hand, the Ministry of Emergency Measures could not and did not want to begin work on pilotless systems with zero. Therefore we have gone under the scheme fulfilled at adaptation of piloted aircraft to our problems. Having considered the pilotless systems created in an initiative order by the industry and, in particular, by corporation “ Irkut “ The Ministry of Emergency Measures has suggested to realise our special requirements. They are connected with autonomy of application, with a transfer an air transport, with characteristics of the onboard equipment, with inclusion possibility in an existing control system of formations of the Ministry of Emergency Measures.
BG: In what pilotless devices developed “ Irkutom “ the Ministry of Emergency Measures feels the greatest requirement?
M. F: It is devices “ Irkut - 60 “ and “ Irkut - 200 “. They the variants most worked by us. Has caused interest “ Irkut - 850 “ which combines possibilities of piloted and pilotless use of a complex. Some experts have estimated it as a palliative in a situation, when there is no standard base of use of pilotless technics. However I do not think that it will be the first device, which we priobretem.
BG: If I correctly understand, in absence is standard - legal base of the Ministry of Emergency Measures is going to use BPLA, leaning against those powers which are given fighters with emergency situations.
M. F: Pilotless technologies are much cheaper, and they should be legalised. We supporters of their widest introduction at itself and in other departments, for example in lesoohrane, responsible for revealing and suppression of seats of forest fire. But for any transition period I suppose also other variant. When we are engaged in work on rescue of the human life, all means are good. This maksima allows to build competently in each concrete place relations with the organisation which provides safety of flights and air traffic control. We and will arrive in an operative order. Probably that at this stage we will not have norms registered at all points and rules, and it is necessary to work on the basis of the frame document containing, speaking in images, the political interdepartmental decision. Such precedents at us are, as the Ministry of Emergency Measures responsibly uses potentially dangerous technologies, including aviation.
BG: the Customer aircraft technicians for state structures is the Ministry of Defence in the name of the Air Forces. It means, what pilotless aircraft should come to the Ministry of Emergency Measures through the long coordination?
M. F: I do not think that such way will allow ours robototehnicheskoj to technics to develop demanded rates. Our position always was unequivocal: we support creation of the uniform unified system of supply VS and power structures. But there, where there is a specificity, we should order, test and accept technics.
Interview took SERGEY SOKUT
the Irkutsk ruler
the First Russian company which has dared to begin works in the field of civil BPLA, there was a corporation “ Irkut “. The company has begun research programs in 1999 and has quickly come to a conclusion that commercialisation of pilotless technics demands not only workings out new BPLA, but also introductions of system decisions attractive to customers. Purchase in 2003 of the licence for manufacture BPLA at the Israeli company Aeronautics and creation on its base of a skilled complex for monitoring of forest fires became step on a way of realisation of such strategy. The further works were conducted on own means, but in contact to the Ministry of Emergency Measures of the Russian Federation that has allowed to generate this year a ruler from the unified pilotless complexes of civil application. In a ruler - five BPLA: from three-kilogramme “ Irkut - 2 “ with radius of action to 40 km to 200 - kilogramme “ Irkut - 200 “ capable six hours to patrol at range to 200 km. Besides, the corporation has offered the original decision for situations in which use BPLA is limited legislatively. Its device “ Irkut - 850 “ motor glider S10VT using as the carrier firms Stemme (Germany), can fly both in piloted, and in a pilotless variant. Besides BPLA “ Irkut “ has developed three variants of land points of management that, according to the director of pilotless programs of corporation Alexander Morzhina, allows the customer to choose a demanded configuration of system. At last, to number of potential advantages “ Irkuta “ it is necessary to carry possibility of a technological transfer in a triangle “ Irkut “ - OKB a name of Jakovleva - RSK the Instant.