Reform from belowOn Tuesday of Ministry of economic development and trade has published the program socially - economic development of the Russian Federation on intermediate term prospect till 2008. Any of three scenarios described in her does not assume gross national product doubling by 2010 - a maximum to 2015 - mu. However there are also other points of view. Gross national product could be doubled if to concentrate on micro-economics reform, that is the enterprises.
doubling and management
the Basis of doubling of gross national product is a growth of real manufacture in the country and increase of competitiveness of the enterprises. Till now problems of doubling of gross national product were discussed more at theoretical and macroeconomic level. Discussions went basically how to reduce negative influence of the state in all its displays by economy and thus to relieve the enterprises of superfluous costs, how to get rid from “ Dutch “ Illnesses and thus to raise competitiveness of manufacture how to lower taxes not to the detriment of the budget and thus to push business development.
the decision of some problems undertook in practice - for example, the government has started administrative reform and the reform of the state finance capable in the long term to relieve business from bureaucratic costs and to raise almost on 30 % efficiency of an expenditure of budgetary funds. And since January, 1st, again - taki with a view of loading decrease on business, the uniform social tax will be lowered. Meanwhile while instead of growth falling of manufacture and gross national product is predicted. MERT considers that instead of necessary 7 - 8 % a year following the results of 2004 growth will make 6,7 - 6,8 %, and in 2005 - m - 5,8 %.
However besides problems of macroeconomic character to manufacture growth in Russia stir problems at microlevel - namely bad management of the enterprises which as a result leads to their unprofitableness and impossibility to involve the investment.
about gravity of a problem tell estimations of experts and experience of the consulting companies which are already engaged in regions in reforming of the enterprises (interview see). So, by data “ ROEL Consulting “ modern technologies of reorganisation of management of the enterprises allow no more than for a year to increase a gain of the separate enterprise twice, and production realisation - even in three. In the company consider that if the majority of the enterprises in the country has attended to management reorganisation, “ High technologies of re-structuring of the enterprises would allow already through two - three years to increase volumes of output in 1,4 - 1,6 times, in 1,3 - 1,4 times to raise the average salary and tax deductions in budgets of regions with their subsequent doubling no more than for seven - eight years “. And the chairman of committee of Council of federation on the financial markets and the monetary circulation, known economist Sergey Vasilev gives even more optimistical forecast: “ Russia not only will manage to achieve gross national product doubling (thanks to reforming of the enterprises. - ), but in an interval between 2005 and 2010 years during one - two years the indicator of rates of increase will be not less than 10 % “.
Consulting and marketing
That occurs on the majority of the Russian enterprises? Many of them are burdened by debts. Not a secret that on quite lawful basis it is possible to make bankrupt about 70 % of the enterprises for debts before the budget and natural monopolies. But to bankrupt in most cases it is senseless: the new proprietor can appear not more effectively old. Besides, the Russian enterprises have low investment appeal. Even if to speak about not the most hopeless enterprises happens that they find investments, but all the same do not achieve desirable effect. It turns out, what not absence of investment money in economy, and a lack of the worked investment projects - the main reason “ investment hunger “ in the country.
to list problems of the Russian enterprises it is possible long enough (see the inquiry). And, perhaps, the main thing at all that many enterprises do not know how to lower the costs and the more so are not able to do it, are not guided by acceptance of favourable and effective financial decisions, and that at the enterprises there is no system of strategic marketing. Production frequently does not correspond to market requirements as marketing is subordinated to interests of manufacture - that is is engaged in sale of already made production, instead of research of the market about the future demand. At such system no investments will bring prosperity. Under the Hamburg account all problems of the Russian enterprises are reduced to one - to the bad organisation of management at deficiency of experts.
actually, this problem still 13 years ago tried to be engaged in Ministry of Economics of that time. It is clear that with the structure of management adapted for planned and not so effective economy, focused it is more than enterprise on the decision of mobilisation problems, than on satisfaction of requirements of citizens, hardly can work effectively in competitive market economy. Then the separate enterprises which have not regretted on it money, consulting firms began to be engaged. Some have got under EU programs. Ten years ago in Ministry of Economics on one of seminars impressing results of reorganisation of one of the enterprises have been shown: the block diagramme of the organisation of work of the enterprise of the Soviet sample has appeared in 10 times more bulky and confused, than the scheme of the same enterprise of the market sample.
sausage and miracles
how there is a reorganisation of the enterprises in Russia, write thick books. In the world about management of the enterprises hundreds textbooks and practical grants are written. Practice, however, shows that on the majority of the Russian enterprises all this printed matter do not read. Frequently at the Russian enterprises it is necessary to change all - from strategy to financial, industrial, innovative and personnel selection. Even coordination between the divisions which are responsible for listed spheres, - a problem. And nestykovka in calculations of different divisions of the enterprise can block deliveries of production or its manufacture, that is lead to losses.
but there where management is reconstructed, it often enough yields impressing results. For example, within a year after reorganisation on Open Society “ the Ufa meat-packing industrial complex “ the volume of output and sales of sausage products has increased in 1,9 times, half-finished products - in 1,6 times, canned food - in 3 times, the gain has grown in 2,2 times, net profit - in 5,3 times, reinvestiruemaja profit - in 4,6 times, loading of capacities - in 1,9 times, labour productivity - in 2,1 times at decrease in number working on 5,6 %. The monthly average salary has grown in 2,1 times, market cost of the company - in 10 times. In “ ROEL Consulting “ assert that the same picture is observed on the majority of the enterprises with which the company worked.
Reforms and regions
For mass reorganisation not to do without support of regions. After all not each enterprise presumes to employ to itself group of advisers. And regions could develop the programs of development, define at least the small list of the priority enterprises which are important for region development, and to support to them in reforming. For example, in a category of credit on start of process of reforming. Some regions have already started to do something similar. For example, the Nizhniy Novgorod, Vladimir, Lipetsk areas, Bashkiria.
regional support of reforming of the enterprises can appear in several ways: in the form of a guarantee under credits, subsidizings of interest rates, grantings of tax privileges under regional taxes for motivation of high rates of development. Can be given and the tax credits stimulating the further development of the enterprise. For example, if the enterprise shows growth above certain level on the tax base received from excess of this level, taxes can to be charged. Anyway reformed enterprise starts to give in the budget of taxes several times more than earlier. And salary growth at the enterprises stimulates demand and consequently, gives an additional impulse to industry development.
however, on the one hand, regions do not have money. Also will not be, while they will not start to plan the budgets effectively. On the other hand, not all the enterprises want to be reconstructed. Not any management for the clear reasons thirsts a transparency of management and financial streams. Another are disturbed by inertia. During recent discussion of a question on reforming of the enterprises in Council of federation the representative of the Lipetsk region Zynaida Grebenshchikova has complained: “ it was heavy to wring hands to the enterprises, many like to wait and look, as it will turn out at neighbours “ .
And not all regions want to show growth. After all having got rid of budgetary deficiency, it is possible to lose and grants from the federal budget. Here, truth, too it is possible to find a way out, for example to fix grants to region, but in exchange to oblige a gain of a profitable part of its budget to direct on a returnable basis on support of reforming of the enterprises and highly profitable projects.
but while the greatest problem - at all search of mechanisms of support of reforming of the enterprises, and necessity of change of a control system of budget money in regions. Only then there there will be money for development and the help in reforming of the enterprises.