Interviewthe vice-president of committee of Council of federation on the financial markets and monetary circulation
“ to Double gross national product it is possible and by 2008 “
- you participated in discussion of a problem of doubling of gross national product in federation Council. Now say more and more what to double gross national product by 2010 quite probably, if to carry out management reforms at the Russian enterprises. What think about it in regions?
- Many senators, and I including, consider that gross national product doubling probably not only by 2010, but also, for example, to 2008 - mu. And many understand that for this purpose it is necessary to develop the enterprises economically. After all volumes of output in this case increase, the salary, demand grows. Besides the taxable base increases and the budget replenishes. But I work three years in Council of federation and I watch problems of the Russian industry. And anywhere I do not see the big eagerness to put work of the enterprises on due level. Though at macrolevel we have much made for the industry for these three years. For example, have lowered taxes. The liberated money should go on development of the enterprises.
- It turns out that they not always there go.
- But has put here not always in a control system. Happens and so that proprietors do not want to develop the enterprise. One, for example, prefer to wait for grants from the regional budget, instead of to search for effective administrative schemes. Others want to catch for nothing state blocks of shares of actions and simply wait, when to the state will bother to have a share in badly working enterprise. Now the state declared that will get rid of inefficient packages in joint-stock companies and from the unitary enterprises. It is not excluded that this process will urge on development of the enterprises and reorganisation of their structure of management. But anyway we should trace that it is necessary to make in the legislation and in economic policy for stimulation of development of the enterprises, and accordingly, for acceleration of growth of gross national product.
- what changes are required in economic policy for gross national product doubling?
- Perhaps, the most important thing - not amendments to laws, and updating monetary - the credit policy of our state. After all a problem not only in bad management of the enterprises. A problem what even the effective enterprise not always can obtain the long-term credit in our banks. Our banks only tochechno finance long-term large-scale projects.
- but experience of the consulting companies shows that the enterprises which have passed reforming, do not have problems with credits. To them literally the turn is built.
- not so it is a lot of Such cases. Nevertheless, of course, in the country there are effective enterprises. At us the food-processing industry now quickly develops, and a control system at many enterprises quite effective. Moreover, I think that the statistics not always reflects a true state of affairs. Many enterprises underestimate the incomes. However necessity of reception of credits (and the size of the credit, or possibility so-called overdrafta, depends on enterprise incomes) compels them to open the information.
anyway the enterprise should have a normal management which would be interested in development, instead of in rastaskivanii the enterprises for the sake of momentary benefit. And that at us frequently happens so: money has earned, in the Swiss bank has translated, and here though the grass not to grow, I will sit and say that at me anything is not present what to develop the enterprise it is impossible.
- it is a lot of enterprises which prefer such way of development, in “ grey “ sector? Which management tries to put as much as possible to itself in a pocket, instead of to give on development?
- Considering, how many at us the country leaves capitals, probably, enough. From this a conclusion such: problems of growth of gross national product should dare in a complex - both reforming of the enterprises, and struggle against doubtful currency transactions, and development of bank system, especially in regions. Probably, on advantage integration of this system will go also.
- regions are ready to support reforming of the enterprises? Experts from consulting firms consider that they can allocate to 3 - 5 % of the budgets for support of this reforming.
- Such money in regional budgets now is not present. 5 mlrd rbl. have reserved in the federal budget of 2005 to the aid of regions in transition from privileges for monetary indemnifications. Besides, in regions huge debts (for example, under children`s grants - 23 mlrd rbl.) have collected .
- But after all it well-known that budgetary expenses - both federal, and regional - are no means always effective. In the Ministry of Finance consider that in regional budgets many internal reserves.
- Yes, it so. Money is frequently sprayed, spent not clearly where. How it is possible to put today in the regional budget building of 150 objects? How it is possible to construct something for 500 thousand rbl.? On hospital building at the best it is necessary to 10 million rbl.
Poor control of budgetary funds in regions is a main scourge. It is not excluded that appointment of the governors, a direct vertical formed thus will solve these problems and will give the big splash in economy. If efficient control in subjects of federation is adjusted, then grants from the centre then regions can allocate money and for reform of the enterprises in priority branches for region will be necessary to smaller quantity of regions. To it stage by stage it is possible to come by 2008.