The electronic breakage
the United Nations urges to make harmless home appliancesIn March representatives of committee on United Nations preservation of the environment together with a number of the largest manufacturers of electronics have declared that in the near future will develop uniform standards which will allow to secure the nature against electronic garbage. 16 companies in which number Dell, Ericsson, HP, etc. It is supposed participate in the program that universal use of non-polluting electronics will begin in ten years. However, for simple users its introduction threatens with additional expenses. Manufacturers plan to put expenses on difficult recycling in the cost price, and the home appliances price will essentially increase.
necessity for the new ecological program of the United Nations is caused by volume of electronic garbage growing from year to year. Electronics manufacture grows, computers, TVs, refrigerators and other household appliances become accessible to overwhelming number of families on globe, - the head of toxic programs Russian Greenpeace Alexey Kiselyov tells daily. - but use term is limited by five-seven years, and it is necessary as - that to utilise them. And to make it it has appeared not so - that simply. And with the beginning of a new century the world has risen before a serious problem: where to put the equipment which has served the term?
by United Nations estimations, the quantity of electronic garbage grows on the average three times faster, than volumes of any other city waste. Only last year to the USA on dumps it has been taken out 2,2 million t old cellular telephones, TVs, tape recorders, accumulators, batteries and so forth In Britain - 1,5 million, to Germany - 1,8 million However, under United Nations forecasts, in second half of 2007 there will be a considerable updating of park of computers and worldwide on a dump it will go already more than 11 million t, and about 300 million personalok. 10 % are processed from them only.
The matter is that the exit on the market of operating system Windows Vista has in a moment made millions computers become outdated, - the director for external relations of League of independent experts in the field of IT Vasily Burov tells daily. - requirements to capacity of the processor, operative memory and other indicators at it huge, and the cars bought still one and a half years ago cope with them hardly. Urge on buyers and statements Windows that release of old versions of an operating system will be limited. As a result demand for more powerful computers will grow only .
Owing to what in the end of 2007, by United Nations estimations, the volume of electronic garbage all over the world will exceed 40 million t that threatens with essential environmental contamination. in an electronic breakage Mendeleyev`s all table contains, - the director of an ecocenter of the largest Russian pererabotchika waste MGUP " tells daily; promothody Vasily Suranovich. - And at old ways of recycling, burning or a burial place on ranges in soil or in atmosphere chemical substances hazardous to health of people " start to be allocated;.
Such devices as microwaves, batteries, photocopying devices or hair dryers, at burning allocate poisonous substances. These are dangerous components among which lead, arsenic, trioksid antimony, selenium, cadmium, chrome, cobalt, mercury and so forth Is also other devices which were issued 20-40 years ago which contain such poisons as dioxine or connections of heavy metals - mercury, cadmium, etc. By words g - on Suranovicha, cost of safe processing of such garbage in 10-100 times above recycling of a usual waste. For this reason it is more favourable to many western companies to take out a breakage to the countries of Asia, Africa and the South America at own expense. Law-enforcement structures of Holland, Germany, Britain, Poland and other countries found out time and again considerable quantities of computers, electric cables, the cathodic tubes prepared for illegal export. Last year such waste included 500 thousand TVs, 3 million refrigerators, 160 thousand t electric equipments and millions written off mobile phones.
recently China became a world dump of electronics, - Alexey Kiselyov marks. - Asia is not so rich with a source of raw materials. And the growing economy of these states consumes all of them more. Partially deficiency is filled at the expense of processing vtorsyrja. The whole regions live in China that overwork electronic garbage, both arriving with home market, and imported of - for a boundary. Now in remote places it is possible to see pictures when near to settlements multimeter mountains on which dirty Chineses potter about grow. They burn through tons of not folding knots, receiving alloys of precious metals, sort the rests and poison with acid electronic payments. Then the metal breakage is on sale. Thus at people is not present neither necessary skills, nor the special equipment, from - for what they endanger not only, but also associates .
Under messages of the Chinese mass-media, annually only Beijing faces a problem of recycling of 3 million units of household electronics. According to the state committee on affairs of development and reforms of China, in 2010 the quantity of an electronic breakage here will grow to 15,83 million t. Struggle against a problem is conducted in several directions. First of all it is required to enter industrial processing of a waste, and then to oblige manufacturers to make at a change design stage in a design, allowing to facilitate recyclings - representative Greenpeace speaks.
On the basis of new committee of the United Nations project working out under name StEP (Solving the E - waste Problem - a solution of a problem of electronic garbage), called to generate the general international principles on the basis of laws of Japan, the European union and the United States is conducted. technologies of safe processing of electronic garbage are developed for a long time already and applied, including in Russia, - Vasily Suranovich marks. - They include manual sorting, dissolution by acid, then fusion in furnaces under the high temperature excluding emission of harmful gases .
Some electronic products contain gold, platinum or even indy, used in TVs with the flat screen, or the ruthenium applied in manufacture of resistors. The kg price indija makes about 725 dollars But, by words g - on Suranovicha, even such cost cannot make processing profitable: technologies are very difficult, from - for what industrial complexes are compelled to compensate losses, raising the prices. Recycling of ton of an electronic breakage is estimated approximately in 500 dollars, usual garbage of all in 40 dollars
Meanwhile experts hope that at the new nature protection legislation manufacturers will be compelled to pay at own expense production recycling, and also will develop the new architecture of electronic devices facilitating processing. The consumers disturbed by a state of environment, can learn non-polluting electronics on the special badge confirmed by committee of the United Nations. However, sceptics do not hasten to divide optimism of ecologists. The increase in costs will be reflected in final cost of home appliances. And expenses on nature preservation will be shifted on simple consumers. In some EU countries since 2005 the similar instruction that has inevitably caused increase in the price of production operates. From - for it the European electronics becomes less competitive. Buyers do not hasten to vote money for mythical non-polluting processing. And to avoid the financial losses, the largest manufacturers all translate manufactures to the same China and in the countries of Asia more actively, in which else there is no developed nature protection culture.
working out of non-polluting electronics is conducted, but while all is limited to level of pre-production models, - Vasily Burov speaks. - process of their introduction in a series will be carried out, but not at once, and stage by stage. After all basic change, for example, in punching of payments will demand change of all technological process, readjustment of the equipment or purchase of new lines. And it is considerable capital investments. So to wait for electronics of new generation it is possible only years etak through ten .