Civilisation of chimeras
experiments with genes cause more and more questionsScientist of University of Nevada it was possible to create the person - a sheep - a chimera which genotype consists on 85 % from genes of a sheep and on 15 % from human genes. In appearance the animal is difficult for distinguishing from a usual sheep - another matter that its some internal is rather similar to the human. The purpose of the scientists who have spent for this work seven years and about 10 million of dollars, just also consisted in that chimera bodies could be replaced with the minimum risk to the person needing them. Creation of similar organisms with human genes is considered by scientists as the major direction both in transplantology, and in agronomics, and in a number of other areas. But chimeras for mankind are how much safe?
Human genes can be built in DNA not only animals, but also plants - so, the Californian biotechnical company Ventria Bioscience has created the grade of rice containing fibers, similar to that contain in a human saliva and chest milk. Besides, the Ministry of Agriculture of the USA has informed on the intention to resolve mass production gennomodifitsirovannogo fig. However not all scientists consider genetic updatings reasonable. “ the researchers making similar experiments, are usually covered with good intentions, - the president of National association of genetic safety Alexander Baranov marks in conversation with daily. - rice in which DNA human genes, the same as and created " have been introduced earlier; gold rice “ Which contains beta - carotin (provitamin A), under statements of its founders, should feed children of Jugo - East Asia, rescuing them from an anaemia and filling the maintenance of necessary substances in a day diet. However, then physicians have conducted research and have found out: to receive necessary quantity beta - carotin, the poor child from Jugo - East Asia should eat on 9 kg “ gold rice “ daily and instead of an anaemia it should be treated already for locks. The same quantity of provitamin A contains all in two carrots. So success of an invention more than doubtful, and negative consequences are doubtless “.
Conclusions which are done by experts, are paradoxical. On the one hand, animals and the plants created with use of DNA of the person, it is not more dangerous than any other transgene organisms. With another - almost any genetically modified organism (GMO) can represent serious danger to mankind. “ The harm put by transgene products, can be various, - Vladimir Tsydendambaev has informed daily the deputy director on scientific work of Institute of physiology of plants of K.A.Timirjazeva of the Russian Academy of Sciences. - recently French scientists have proved that the corn of grade MON 863 created by firm Monsanto and resolved to the use in food both in the European Union, and in Russia, leads to defeat of kidneys and a liver. The foodstuff made of genetically modified organisms or raw materials, can cause an allergy and as each transgene insert, as a rule, contains a gene of stability to those or other antibiotics, in case of the use in food GMO in a human body at the expense of so-called “ horizontal carrying over “ the symbiotic microflora steady against these antibiotics that as you understand, not so well can develop. Concrete negative consequences depend as on a kind of a transgene used in food, and from sensitivity level to it of the person. Thus the quantity of copies of transgene inserts in DNA of organisms is absolutely not known, it is not known that is damaged in genome owing to the occurred transformation. As a result it is the extremely difficult to find out the most unexpected changes in various properties GMO: suddenly can start to work “ silent “ earlier genes or, on the contrary, the working can “ to break off “ “.
the Person - a sheep - the first animal with human genes is far not: in March researchers of Medical institute of Howard Hughes managed to introduce in a chromosome of mice a gene of the person responsible for perception of light waves of a red piece of a spectrum. Thanks to it rodents had an opportunity to distinguish red colour. This sort of experiences are conducted in many countries: So, the Belarus scientists declared the readiness to continue experiments on introduction of human genes in a chromosome of a goat. Researchers count that as a result animals can make the milk containing medicinal fiber of the person - laktoferrin. In this project the head of investment holding ", by the way, has become interested; Renova “ Victor Vekselberg.
as it was found out, creation of individual copies GMO is not too dangerous: with much more terrible consequences the situation at which the organisms created by scientists will get to the wild nature threatens. As informs a number of editions, it and is going to make Ventria Bioscience, 1200 hectares which have already allocated more farmlands under cultivation gennomodifitsirovannogo fig. “ genetically changed cereals which are grown up in an open ground, provoke repollination of all no-purpose related cultures. As a result introduced in a plant for the blessing of one group of people the gene starts to walk on all ecological environment and to develop certain fiber which not always can appear useful to all other groups of the population. To catch it and to withdraw from DNA of the pollinated plants it is already impossible “ - marks g - n Rams.
“ it is known that introduction of an alien genetic material in vegetative a gene can essentially break its functioning, - Vladimir Tsydendambaev warns. - inclusion " is Thus rather probable; silent “ genes, including genes of a so-called secondary metabolism peculiar to all plants. The situation becomes complicated also that connections formed as a result of this process can be absolutely uncharacteristic for an initial plant and are rather toxic. And it too a risk source. The reason of potential danger of transgene technologies is that methods of creation GMO applied now are extremely imperfect, and the argument which is resulted by the companies creating transgene organisms, for their advancement on the market frequently does not maintain any criticism. The same Monsanto at registration 863 has presented to EU of corn of grade MON rather solid in appearance the given researches proving full safety of a product created by it. Subsequently it was found out that experts of firm have played a cunning trick, having selected not absolutely correct statistical method “.
As has told g - n Rams, on April, 10th in the State Duma will pass session of five committees - public health services, safety, agrarian, ecology, science and education. Legislative regulation of use GMO becomes one of the questions appearing in the agenda. The theme important and difficult - legislations on biotechnologies at us while is not present. Certainly, to arrive on tables to the ordinary citizens, all products should obtain the licence. But, as it was found out, it not such and a serious obstacle. “ in Russia it is possible to use in food only that is authorised, that is only those GMO which are registered in Gosreestre Rospotrebnadzora: among all other there it is registered 14 kinds GMO of a phytogenesis received with application of transgene technologies: six lines of the corn, three lines of the soya, three grades of the potato, one line of the sugar beet, one line of rice, and also five kinds of genetically modified microorganisms, - speaks g - n Tsydendambaev. - They and only can be used them in food. Another matter that in the market come across and not registered GMO: so for example, not so long ago transgene grades LL Rice 601 and 602 have been found out in party American dlinnozernovogo rice which is forbidden even in the USA. Worst of all that for sale not registered GMO there is no responsibility. Here in a case if there are no marks, under the law “ About protection of the rights of consumers “ responsibility, the truth, any absolutely frivolous is provided. And here if GMO it is not registered, that is it is, otherwise, forbidden to use in food there is no responsibility “.
Occurrence of new kinds in a planet ecosystem, their embedding in food chains can lead to changes in a human kind which, in effect, can appear more dangerously any other mutations. “ Genetikam it would be desirable to show progress possibilities, its irreversibility, - Alexander Baranov complains. - yes, it is progressive idea, but after all progressive ideas often conduct in deadlock. Technologies are picked up nothing by misters not understanding in biology from commerce and, without having checked up safety nou - hau, start it on the market. Noise which has now risen around genetically changed products, is not casual. There was an awful thing: commerce has run ahead of a science. The chimeras created genetikami, are already started in mass production, uncontrollable genetic pollution takes place. We have sat down on a needle gennomodifitsirovannyh products, and our organisms consuming them together with meal, became hostages of private experiment which now occurs “.