Without oxygen and food
biologists have found out the bacteria, capable to live “ in a hell “
German biologists together with colleagues from the USA have found and have described a new kind of life. These are the bacteria carrying out the life cycle not on the basis of oxygen and living at the expense of methane and sulphur, exhaled of bowels of the Earth. Earlier was considered that the similar kind of biochemical reactions is impossible also microorganisms can absorb either sulphur, or natural gas separately. Detection in sea adjournment of unusual beings has revealed for scientists new riddles of development of evolution of microorganisms since the most ancient times.
inhabitancy thermophilic serozavisimyh bacteria is really extreme. They are found out in layers of ground adjournment at the bottom of the tropical seas, in an exit zone on a surface of underground gases where there is no oxygen and a sunlight necessary for photosynthesis, and also elementary assortment of a food.
“ As it has appeared, the bacteria isolated on a sea-bottom have adapted to use instead of oxygen sulphur, and as food they consume unique hydrocarbons in those places - the prosir and butane, - biochemist Hajnts Vilkes from the National research centre of sciences the head of group of researchers tells about the Earth (GeoForschungsZentrum) in Potsdam (Germany). - Such conditions develop only on the big depths or in bowels of the Earth at enough high temperatures “.
And their detection has thrown into confusion the scientific world. Bacteria known to a science could use each of these processes separately. And moreover, human knowledge of biochemistry denied course of similar reactions in live organisms.
the big groups - aeroby, living at the expense of oxygen until recently have been described, and anaeroby to which oxygen is not necessary and even is harmful. “ In certain cases sulphur serves as though as an oxygen substitute, - the laboratory chief of ecology and geochemical organic activity of microorganisms of Institute of microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir Gorlenko tells daily. - There is even such term, as sulfuric breath. It serves as an oxidizer and participates in organic chemistry oxidation “.
So, the microbes existing in volcanic areas of a planet, hot wells and places of an exit of the underground waters sated with sulphur are very well described. There are they and in underwater cracks of rocks, there, where natural gas migrates and there is a water circulation. They are called “ serookisljajushchie termofily “ also exist at very high temperatures, more 100Ñ. As a matter of fact, they live in boiling water, and nowadays registered limit - 114Ñ. The most extreme systems is “ black smokers “. There are they in places raspolzanija oceanic plates. The underground warmed up waters enriched with natural minerals and having black colour, under pressure escape outside, and the impression is made that under water there is a black smoke. There communities of bacteria which form a basis of deep ecosystems are very extended. Directly at sources where the temperature comes nearer to 100Ñ, and in “ smokers “ nearby 300Ñ, crabs creep and at total absence of light there live shrimps. Energy is filled only at the expense of bowels of the Earth.
“ on - visible, the most widespread group of organisms is serozavisimye bacteria which grow at high temperatures strictly in anaerobnyh conditions, that is without oxygen access, - the known biologist and the inspector, the academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences George Zavarzin tells daily. - by the American estimations, their number at ocean makes 10 in 30 - j degrees of cages. And it even more than on a surface of the Earth. Therefore as on a land live 10 in 28 - j degrees of cages. And to serozavisimoj to microflora the great attention " is chained now very much;.
other version of bacteria which overwork natural gas for reception of hydrocarbons Is known also. As a matter of fact, they use it in food. “ the majority of scientific researches is conducted on methane absorption, - Vladimir Gorlenko continues. - And until recently was considered that bacteria can oxidise gas only in the presence of oxygen. But recent researches show that such process nevertheless can exist and without oxygen. It is very difficult mechanism, and goes as though sookislenie gas “. Such bacteria in Black sea are known. They live on depths below 100 m.
But microorganisms which would combine process of sulfuric breath with absorption of natural gas while it has not been noticed. Researchers are assured that the new kind of bacteria will help to understand microcosm evolution better. “ Studying of properties of bacteria has very big resonance, - Vladimir Gorlenko continues. - So, damage of products in Antarctica became stimulus for detection holodoljubivyh organisms. As a result the bacteria, capable to live have been found at temperature to - 4-6Ñ and occupying subglacial lakes. In attempts to understand why fish after salting goes out, scientific have come across other kind of bacteria in not less extreme conditions. For them the salty environment is important, and they live besides other in salty lakes where salt level comes nearer to 100 gr. On litre. For example, this lake Mono - Lejk in California. Understanding, as these closed systems develop, we understand how there was a life development on the Earth in an extreme antiquity when oxygen level was extremely low and there was a primary acid ocean “.
Unusual bacteria find the application in biotechnologies in practical area. So, termofily are used in molekuljarno - biological diagnostics. They are capable to prepare precisely DNA molecules, cutting them by means of certain enzymes. It is curious that enzymes of bacteria dependent on soda are already applied in detergent powders. And studying of new kinds of bacteria will move biotechnologies forward.