On an example of a virtual city psychologists have opened algorithm of behaviour of the big congestion of people
On destructive force aggressive crowd compare to natural cataclysms. The show when still recently quiet and quite adequate people turn to the present savages who with shouts smash cars and show-windows, arouses fear. Practice shows that attempts of verbal and power suppression from bodies of protection of the law and order only irritate the excited weight that is fraught with victims from both parties. For this reason psychologists and sociologists any more study the first century behaviour of crowd, trying to understand its laws and to develop a bloodless and effective way of suppression of the raged people.
The Advanced achievement in this area was research of scientists from University of Arizona creation of the computer model allowing with bolshej or smaller degree of reliability to predict variants of behaviour of crowd became which result. Search of circumstances and provoking factors became a research objective, from - for which the peace community turns to aggressive crowd. For the decision of tasks in view arizonskie experts have created computer model of an artificial city in which live some thousand virtual inhabitants. Thus social composition of the population of model in a percentage parity repeated structure of the population of big cities: workers, students, schoolboys, clerks, jobless, pensioners, migrants and etc. Certainly, in real life all is much more difficult: the behaviour of the person is caused not only its social status, but also temperament, I.Q., personal experience, principles and ethical views. For this reason scientists had been did titanic work: each virtual inhabitant has been supplied by unique psychological characteristics according to which the program automatically calculated a way of reaction of the little man on those or other conditions. This computer model, according to experts, for all history of research of behaviour of crowd, has allowed to approach as much as possible close to reproduction of reaction of crowd in vitro. Having simulated various situations of behaviour of human weights, scientists have made some conclusions.
the crowd is defined by not so much quantitative characteristics, how many specific signs. That “ the bomb has blown up “ people should be in very short distance, in close physical contact so that to enter into personal space each other. From - for infringements of personal space there is a raised mental pressure. Emotional excitation accrues, and it is necessary for people to remove this stress. Besides the is more close to each other scientists of virtual little men moved up, the less factors it was required for occurrence of an aggressive situation. The general pressure in the congestions exceeding 120-150 persons, gathered on emotionally painted, significant for everyone to an occasion (meeting, favorite team support, a concert) was especially strongly shown. It is interesting that the more at crowd is present mobile, emotionally unstable and young men, the transition from peace meeting to aggressive weight is easier carried out. With the impulsive gestures and a resolute spirit of the ringleader infect the others, and the brightest mental condition of one person is transferred to another - it is necessary to one to cry or throw a stone, it will be supported by many. And approximately in 30-40 minutes of close tactile contact people involuntarily synchronise the actions, turning to a uniform organism.
“ At the heart of a so-called herd instinct psychological mechanisms of infection and imitation lie, - Lyudmila Obuhova has told daily the doctor of psychological sciences, the professor, the full member of the Russian academy of natural sciences. - the imitation Mechanism develops from first days of human life and plays the major role in development of the child. However excessive propensity to imitation at mature age can lead to such negative effects as inability independently to make decisions or dominance submissiveness of the majority. And here infection - the psychological mechanism which causes unconscious distribution to crowd of mood and an emotional background. Imitation and infection strengthen each other “.
From passive the crowd will necessarily pass in an active condition which is characterised by readiness of group for joint actions. Thus the computer model has shown that, being included in crowd, the person any more does not submit to rational motives - the educational level and social satisfaction have left on the second plan, and actions of virtual little men could be foreseen, only knowing their temperament. So, the nervous excitability and more low a resistance to stress have been above set to virtual inhabitants, the faster the inhabitant of a computer city joined in crowd. Having analysed behaviour of the crowds consisting of representatives of the various people, scientists have found out the interesting fact: it appears the most aggressive “ spontaneous community “ which members live in conservative societies with rigid morals, set of conventions and rules. It, according to researchers, explains special cruelty of English and Scottish fans. Squeezed by uncountable rules in usual life, the mentality of people accumulates pressure which pours out in disorders and asotsialnoe behaviour in crowd.
On the basis of the revealed factors provoking aggression scientists from Arizona develop a method of psychological influence on crowd which would allow to prevent mass excitements and effectively to operate the big congestions of people.