Nalchik. The history and the presentto the City of Nalchik not to get used to shots and people in the military form. In the beginnings of a XIX-th century it also has been based as military settlement. First permanent residents in a city almost was not. Soldiers and officers served the term, and then left home. Gradually in a city there was a settled population representing different nationalities.
fortress occurrence Nalchik is connected with a name of the general A. of P.Yermolov. In 20 - h years of a century before last it conducted cruel fights with Kabardians who did not wish to execute its orders and to move from mountains on plain under supervision of military men. The general has gone a way habitual for and began to put fortresses in mountains leaving in them strong garrisons. The fortress Nalchik has been chosen by Yermolov for management of all system of Kabardian strengthenings. It has occurred in 1825, and it grants the right to some historians to consider, what exactly then the fortress and has been constructed. Nevertheless, under the official version, by this time the settlement already existed, and date of its basis - 1818.
However, since 2004 date of the basis of Nalchik considers 1724, instead of 1818 and not 1825 as was till now. Such decision is accepted session of the City Council at the initiative of director Kabardino - Balkarsky scientific research institute of humanitarian researches of Hasana Dumanova. Under the new version, on September, 1st, 2004 at capital KBR anniversary - 280 years. According to Hasana Dumanova, the territory of modern Nalchik has been occupied till 1822 when the fortress has been constructed.
during the Caucasian war 1817 - 1864 Nalchik increased the influence as region capital. Kabardians have quickly enough calmed down and in war with Shamilem kept a neutrality. The imam has made once attempt to grasp Kabardu, but has not found support among local population and has returned to the Chechen Republic.
After the end of war in Nalchik peace building has begun, the well-known orchard and lime avenue has been put. The status of the city of Nalchik has received in 1921. Since December, 5th, 1936 Nalchik - capital Kabardino - Balkarsky ASSR, with 1991 - capital Kabardino - Balkarsky Republic. During the Great Patriotic War Nalchik during three and a half months has been occupied by German armies. In January, 1943 it has been released.
now Nalchik - capital Kabardino - the Balkarsky Republic, one of the large economic, administrative and cultural centres of the North Caucasus and a known health resort. It is located at bottom of the main Caucasian ridge at height of 512 metres above sea level. “ Nalchik “ in transfer with Kabardian and balkarskogo languages means “ a horseshoe “ as the city is located in the semicircle of mountains reminding a horseshoe. From this word has received the name and the river Nalchik proceeding on the city territory. The river belongs to pool of Terek.
the territory of Nalchik makes 131 sq. km, the population - 300 thousand persons, a green square of the city - 991 hectares thanks to what Nalchik is considered a city - park, combining in the shape of beauty of the nature and architecture. The majority of the population of Kabardino - Balkarii is made by Kabardians (49,2 %) and Russian (30,7 %). Balkartsev in republic of 9,6 %, also in its territory Ossetins, taty, Germans, Koreans live.
it is paradoxical, but the fact: Nalchik long time was a fortress, and the population consisted practically of garrison, however now in a city any large military unit does not lodge. On one of versions, absence in Nalchik large military and militian divisions became the basic factor at planning by insurgents of operation on an attack on a city. And only 135 - yj the separate motor-shooting regiment is near to a city - in settlement Cool.
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