In Russia the new technics on destruction of the chemical weapon
Military opposition of the USSR and the USA in days of cold war, the military doctrines of superstates assuming conducting of military operations with a use of weapons of mass defeat prepares, have led to accumulation to the middle 80 - h years in the world of huge stocks of the chemical weapon.
the USSR was the owner of such type of weapon. Means of application of the chemical weapon were aviation, artillery ammunition and fighting parts of rockets. All chemical weapon has been concentrated in seven arsenals located in 6 regions (the Udmurt Republic, the Saratov, Kirov, Penza, Bryansk, Kurgan areas).
Signed and ratified by the Russian Federation “ the Convention on prohibition of working out, manufacture, accumulation and application of the chemical weapon and about its destruction “ (Further under the text - the Convention) obliges our state completely to destroy the saved up stocks of the chemical weapon.
Now on objects on storage of the chemical weapon are and destruction some millions the chemical ammunition which first parties have been made and accepted on arms in the middle of the last century wait. In the course of long-term storage under the influence of environment, fiziko - the chemical changes occurring to poison gases, and also other factors safety of a condition of chemical ammunition goes down.
Originally the estimation and forecasting of safety of a condition long time of stored chemical ammunition were based on carrying out of great volume of rather expensive control tests. Opening of ammunition was made, evacuation of small weight of poison gas for analysis carrying out was carried out, the changes defining a condition of parametres of chemical ammunition, including cases and poison gases were fixed. If these parametres were in admissible limits the decision on suitability of the given type of chemical ammunition for their further safe storage was made.
As a result of carrying out scientifically - research also it is skilled - design works after 1997 there were the methods, allowing to estimate a condition of chemical ammunition and capacities with poison gases without opening of cases of ammunition. By means of control devices the measurement of a thickness of walls of cases of chemical ammunition based on an ultrasonic method for the purpose of an estimation of possible corrosion damages is spent.
For an estimation and forecasting of a condition of job lots of chemical ammunition, long time being stored, methods of statistical mathematical modelling are applied. With their help the specialised organisations give out recommendations about warranty periods of safe storage of chemical ammunition.
At long storage there was emergency ammunition. In the beginning 80 - h years of last century for their destruction the mobile complex has been developed for destruction of emergency chemical ammunition.
the Technology of destruction of poison gases on this complex which has received name KUHO (a complex on destruction of the chemical weapon), has been based on developed FGUP “ gosniioht “ technologies of destruction of poison gases. At the first stage poison gas was exposed detoksikatsii with use of special reagents. At this stage the chemical weapon ceases to exist, as poison gas is neutralised. Received after detoksikatsii poison gases reactionary weights at the second stage of technological process were burnt. For this purpose in structure KUHO there were special furnaces. Cases of ammunition were exposed to chemical decontamination and heat treatment. The complex structure included also the car of chemical investigation, chemical laboratory with devices himiko - analytical control, transport cars, devices rassnarjazhenija ammunition, installation of giving of neutralised reagents and burning of reactionary weights and a liquid waste, diesel power station, the compressor. All units took place on the chassis of cars.
complex Tests were spent on object on storage of the chemical weapon to the item Maradykovsky the Kirov region. In 1982 after successful end of the state tests the complex on destruction of the chemical weapon has been accepted on supply.
Manufacture KUHO was carried out at factory “ Penzahimmash “ (nowadays Open Society NPP “ himmash - Start “) . 20 complexes have been in total made. They met the necessary requirements, provided safe operation and the guaranteed destruction of emergency chemical ammunition.
Questions of maintenance of safe storage of chemical death, revealing and destruction of emergency ammunition are in conducting Federal management on safe storage and destruction of the chemical weapon. The structure of federal management includes special division on destruction of emergency chemical ammunition. This division is in direct submission of the chief of Federal management on safe storage and destruction of the chemical weapon the general - lieutenant Valery Kapashina. The division will organise destruction of emergency chemical ammunition directly on objects on storage and objects on destruction of the chemical weapon, provides service and repair of complexes, co-operates with federal and regional enforcement authorities, divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Emergency Measures for the purpose of safety of spent works. Besides, on each object on storage and object on destruction of the chemical weapon are generated and divisions of liquidation of emergencies (OLAS) operate. Divisions for liquidation of possible supernumerary situations at storage of the chemical weapon are equipped by all necessary forces and means. Activity on destruction of emergency ammunition is carried out on the basis of specially developed instructions.
Storage of the chemical weapon is carried out with observance of the strict security measures. Storehouses are equipped by tight sluices, ventilation system, automatic gazosignalizatorami which will react to occurrence in air of steams OV and will submit an alarm signal. Each storehouse is equipped by tight containers for time storage of emergency ammunition. If ammunition suddenly “ has begun to flow “ it place in the container in which it and will be stored up to the destruction moment. The case of each chemical ammunition has a special display covering which in case of leak of poison gases changes the colour. The term “ ammunition has begun to flow “ has conditional sense as for experts change of display colouring speaks about occurrence only poison gas steams in very small concentration. Display colouring is daily checked by the chief of storehouse. On revealing of emergency ammunition it is immediately informed on command in Federal management on safe storage and destruction of the chemical weapon.
Daily strict control is accompanied by intense study. Preparation of experts is conducted according to the special program. The service in OLAS is carried out only by the military men who have passed individual selection. Staff doctrines on working off of actions in case of occurrence of the emergency situations connected with leak of poison gases are regularly spent.
destruction - to start!
Emergency chemical ammunition is destroyed directly in territory of object by forces OLAS under control and at direct participation of officers of Federal management on safe storage and destruction of the chemical weapon. Destruction process is spent according to item 12 of the Federal law from May, 2nd, 1997 N 76 - FZ “ About destruction of the chemical weapon “.
Destruction of emergency ammunition is carried out with participation of regional control and supervising bodies. The plan of works on destruction of emergency ammunition is informed in the Organization on prohibition of the chemical weapon, and process of destruction of emergency chemical ammunition is carried out in the presence of its inspectors.
With a view of ecological load decrease on environment now on KUHO stages of recycling of reactionary weights, a toxic waste, and also roasting of cases of chemical ammunition are not carried out. The given operations will be spent according to regulations in stationary conditions only on object on destruction of the chemical weapon.
Destruction of emergency ammunition is spent annually, as a rule, to summertime, small parties. Can be a day destroyed from 2 to 3 emergency chemical ammunition. Works on destruction begin early in the morning in windless weather when conditions allow staff to feel comfortably in individual defence means. Work is not supposed at night.
the destruction Moment is preceded by the big spadework. The special division of Federal management on safe storage and destruction of the chemical weapon prepares a package of documents. Through national body of the Russian Federation - the Federal agency on the industry in OZHO is informed on forthcoming destruction. Regional enforcement authorities which provide presence at destruction of emergency chemical ammunition of representatives of control and supervising bodies are beforehand notified.
Officers of federal management leave on corresponding object, carry out servicing KUHO and with representatives of Open Society NPP “ himmash - Start “ prepare a complex for work. Without fail prior to the beginning of destruction of emergency chemical ammunition lessons with staff OLAS are conducted, offsets under safety precautions are accepted. Physical examination is carried out by experts FMBA of Russia. The special attention is given to psychological stability of staff as the technology of work with emergency ammunition essentially differs from daily activity on object on storage of the chemical weapon.
Since 1997 on the present by means of complexes it has been destroyed 472 emergency chemical ammunition. In 2006 41 ammunition, in 2007 - 58 has been destroyed. Among the destroyed emergency ammunition - 52 aerial bombs.
During performance of works on destruction of emergency chemical ammunition it has not been noted even preconditions for creation of emergencies. High vocational training and responsibility of staff of the divisions which are carrying out destruction of emergency chemical ammunition, on advantage is highly appreciated by the government of the Russian Federation and the Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation. 16 officers are awarded by government awards and 10 - awards of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation.
works on modernisation KUHO Now are spent. Destruction of emergency ammunition in places of their storage has made excessive its mobility. Equipment placing in a special premise will allow to raise safety of technological process, to protect the personnel and inhabitants of nearby settlements, to secure environment. Original technical decisions provide clearing of emissions of polluting substances in atmosphere, exclude hit of a liquid and firm waste in reservoirs and soil, provide safety of spent works according to requirements of effective standards and rules. The first such complex which has received name KUAB, is planned to start in operation in 2009.