About liquidation of the chemical weapon
the Chapaevsky swoop it has not turned out
the World process of demolition of the car of global military opposition very difficult and sometimes the painfull gets rid of a legacy of cold war, however. Besides demands considerable financial expenses. And the successful result on this way can be reached only under condition of joint actions of the most different states.
In particular it concerns process of destruction of one of the most dangerous types of weapon of mass destruction (OHM) - chemical arms. Realisation of the international Convention on prohibition of working out, manufacture, accumulation and application of the chemical weapon and about its destruction (KHO) has appeared much more a challenge, than it was represented originally. And not only because Russia has inherited from the USSR the largest in the world an arsenal of the chemical weapon (HO) - 40 thousand Tons, also it was necessary to dig up enormous resources for its destruction. The main thing consisted that the problem of liquidation HO in Russia owing to variety of the specific reasons could not be solved without conscious support of all population of the country and a wide circle understanding all importance of it really of a historic step. There was a necessity of creation of system of the information of the population adequate to new conditions, first of all in regions, where this weapon is placed to help the public to overcome negative moods concerning process of liquidation HO and to take active part in its realisation.
As it is known, scientifically - technical aspects of destruction HO have started to be studied in Soviet Union still in 70 - e In the subsequent it was a question already of creation of a mobile complex for liquidation of emergency ammunition. This complex has been shown participants of the international negotiations in 1987 on a military facility of Shihany. From 1980 for 1987 with use of this complex it has been destroyed about 4000 units of the ammunition containing more of 280 tons OV. In 1985 the government of the USSR has made the decision on creation of stationary object on destruction HO. Thus, two years prior to phase-out of the chemical weapon in 1987 our country has started to prepare for process of liquidation of its stocks.
the complex Created in 1989 around Tchapaevsk should be the first large-scale object on destruction of the chemical weapon which operating experience would allow to develop offers on creation of other objects and by that to solve a problem of liquidation of stocks of the chemical weapon in the USSR. Unfortunately, the object in Tchapaevsk and has not been placed in operation basically from - for the protest of the public and the region population. Simultaneously this protest has been supported by the next regions which have forbidden transportation of poison gases on their territory. Negative experience of creation of object in Tchapaevsk has to the full reflected miscalculations of the former country leaders in work with the population and the press.
Became obvious what practically to solve all complex of the questions connected with destruction of the chemical weapon, it is possible only by acceptance of enough open State target program attention strengthening to corresponding social problems, to development of an infrastructure of regions and maintenance of the population with the necessary information would be which key problem. The project of such Government program has been prepared in 1990 and presented to the Supreme body of the USSR. The modifed project has been presented the government in 1991, but on it the destiny of the document has broken in connection with disintegration of the USSR.
Among the first decisions of Russia in the field of destruction of the chemical weapon it is possible to consider acceptance by spring of 1992 The decree of the President of the Russian Federation about formation of Committee on conventional problems of the chemical and biological weapon at the President of the Russian Federation. Functions of the interdepartmental coordination centre have been assigned to this committee on the problems connected with liquidation of the chemical weapon. One of the cores was granting to the population of the corresponding information.
However in this area practically on all extent of activity of Presidential Administration of B.Yeltsin it has been made obviously insufficiently. It should render all negative influence on the decision of the problems connected with chemical demilitarisation. Inability of the country leaders to refusal of excessive privacy along with shortage at the state of means for realisation of social transformations played the extremely negative role in public opinion formation, creating soil for any conjectures and political gamble concerning process of destruction HO.
It was shown in references to the authorities with requirements to stop process of realisation KHO which as affirmed, represented serious health hazard of the population and created threat for environment. As the facts bore, the population expressed much more fear concerning the threats connected with liquidation HO, than concerning negative consequences of its storage.
After signing and ratification KHO at proceeding shortage at the public of the corresponding data about properties HO, methods and means of collective protection against it, technology of destruction OV reaction in regions on process of chemical demilitarisation became even more negative. Thus it is impossible to tell that necessary data were absent on a broader scale. To the contrary, the information began to appear even in bolshem volume. However it was inaccessible for broad masses. Business consisted that this information was published in highly specialised, limited editions, and booklets and textbooks on civil defence did not contain the necessary data.
Process has gone
In these conditions it was required to find urgently new forms of contacts to the population which would allow the wide public to be guided correctly in numerous aspects of a problem of destruction HO. And since the middle of 2000 the situation connected with information support of process of liquidation HO in Russia, has gradually started to change for the better. The attention to questions of chemical disarmament has considerably increased from legislative and executive powers, the Government of the Russian Federation, regional and local authorities. The decree of the President of the Russian Federation in October, 2000 The decision on putting on of functions of the state customer and other powers in the field of chemical disarmament on the Russian agency on ammunition was accepted. The agency also should carry out functions of national body of the Russian Federation on realisation of the Convention on prohibition of the chemical weapon. At agency Federal management on safe storage and destruction of the chemical weapon began to operate. The corresponding presidential decree had been formed the State commission on chemical disarmament. Target maintenance of coordination of actions of federal bodies, enforcement authorities, authorities of subjects of Federation and local governments at realisation of a state policy in the field of chemical disarmament became its main task.
the concept of destruction of stocks of the chemical weapon Has been reconsidered. All it has found reflexion in last edition of the Federal target program “ Destruction of stocks of the chemical weapon in the Russian Federation “ which has been confirmed by the governmental order of the Russian Federation from July, 5th, 2001, N 510. Allocation by the state of the financial assets necessary for realisation of tasks in view, though still in insufficient volume has simultaneously begun. Interaction of Russia with foreign countries in business of rendering to it the financial help in the field of destruction HO has extended. The foreign help on the Russian programs can approximately make in the near future 50 percent of necessary expenses though while its share does not exceed 20 percent, and 80 percent are own means of Russia.
Nevertheless the processes connected with realisation KHO, began to go faster rates. Practically in all regions where there is a chemical weapon, are developed tehniko - economic justifications for under construction objects, are spent engineering - ecological researches, the estimation of the future influence of objects on destruction HO on environment is made. Public ecological examination is carried out, and also the conclusions nature protection and sanitary - the ecological organisations are drawn. The factory on destruction of the chemical weapon in settlement Mountain the Saratov region has successfully started to work, building of objects in Pike the Kurgan region and in Kambarka of the Udmurt Republic proceeds.
In new conditions when the question of destruction of the chemical weapon has entered a stage of concrete realisation, for the best adaptation of the population to this process simply it was impossible to do without creation at the state level qualitatively new, meeting the requirements of the moment, adequate system of information support of the population. Main objective of new information system is creation of conditions for a free exchange of opinions and sights of all interested parties on the questions, concerning destructions HO. It, on the one hand, provides granting to the population and information public organisations, and with another, gives the chance full and timely data acquisition about a public opinion status, mood of the people living in places of storage and destructions HO.
Actions for information support are carried out by hearing under the general plan at several levels: international, federal and at level of subjects of the Russian Federation and municipal unions in the locations of objects the EAR (these objects are understood as objects on storage and destruction of the chemical weapon, and also the former objects on its manufacture) according to stages of performance of the Federal target program “ Destruction of stocks of the chemical weapon in the Russian Federation “.
One of the priority purposes of new system of information support of a problem of destruction HO is its realisation at the international level. It is necessary for strengthening of the international cooperation, the further development of external relations in sphere of chemical disarmament, expansion of a circle of foreign partners in rendering assistance of Russia in destruction HO, uses thereupon possibilities of the states-participants of the Program “ Global partnership “.
Actions for information support at the international level are carried out:
- in the form of an exchange of opinions and the information with the international organisations, state structures and parliaments of the countries - participants KHO, the non-governmental, public ecological organisations;
- in the form of information granting by foreign mass-media concerning safe storage HO, to concrete steps of Russia in the field of performance of requirements of the Convention, level of financing and the planned expenses. It is necessary to do the last to avoid duplication of programs by the countries assisting Russia, and to provide to it possibility to keep within the terms stipulated in KHO.
information support of a problem of liquidation KHO at federal level as it gives to the population of the country granting about the general state of affairs, connected with realisation KHO is not less important, and defines strategic problems in the decision of this question. Here the active role is played by enforcement authorities, Federal Meeting of the Russian Federation, the public and economic organisations, and also independent experts.
the Basic attention is given to information support of problems of chemical disarmament at level of subjects of Federation and municipal unions. Its major problems are, on the one hand, assistance of achievement of political mutual understanding and cooperation between federal and local bodies of legislative and executive power, between military men and the population, and with another, maintenance of public approval on places of plans on destruction HO. For this purpose in the basic regions where the chemical weapon is placed, Regional information centres (RITS), working in direct contact to local governmental structures and various public organisations are created.
the Big work in this sphere is spent by information centres on the public relations, created at bodies in places of storage and destruction of the chemical weapon. The main tasks of these centres are regular monitoring of public opinion, socially - political and ecological conditions in regions where it is placed HO, and also granting to the population of the objective information on a state of affairs in sphere of chemical disarmament in each concrete region.
For conducting work with the population concerning storage and destruction HO in a number of regions Social councils from inhabitants of the settlements entering into the Zone of protective actions (ZZM) of objects of storage and destruction HO, having corresponding programs and holding regular sessions are generated.
Ask - it is responded
by Information centres constant contact to regional and local mass-media is come into. They spend regular tracing of materials of the news agencies, leading TV channels and printing editions. On the basis of these actions release of weekly reviews, recommendations and offers is carried out. Besides, in regional mass-media monthly release of loose leaves concerning storage and destruction HO will be organised. Leaflets and booklets on these subjects periodically extend. In this activity the regional centres in many respects lean against experience “ the Green Cross “ actively working in corresponding regions.
One of the major aspects of activity RITS is operative preparation of materials and placing on television of the corresponding information, concerning propagation of necessity of chemical disarmament and formation at the population of the positive relation to questions of destruction HO. A number of the centres was already prepared by special television programs and television movies on the given subjects.
the Special attention in regions is given to holding conferences and briefings (with participation of representatives of administration and public organisations), reflecting the basic events on building of objects on destruction HO, and also explaining a state policy concerning realisation of requirements KHO.
the Key party of the information support which is carried out RITS, drawing up of information base by them on the basis of the international and Russian acts and standard documents on questions the EAR, and also creation of own sites with placing and their maintenance on the Internet is.
duties of the centres include working out of curriculums concerning storage and destruction HO, maintenance of ecological education of the population, chemical disarmament, and also the organisation of consultations for answers to questions and state policy explanations into storage areas and destructions HO, and also level of financing of realised programs.
In spite of the fact that the new approach to information support of the population concerning destruction of the chemical weapon functions rather recently, the data from places allows to draw a conclusion on its sufficient efficiency. He not only allows the population and public organisations to receive the concrete and actual information on the major decisions in the field of chemical disarmament, but also gives the chance to supervising bodies to obtain the data about the relation to these decisions on places and to do from this corresponding conclusions. Strictly speaking, it also is means of strengthening of civil control over process of chemical demilitarisation of the country.
the Purpose of all these actions sostoit it is no simple in coordination in uniform system of process of informing of the population about all event in sphere of destruction of the chemical weapon. The main task sees in removal of certain social intensity which arises often, and at times and is artificial is created round everything that the EAR is connected with process.
the Created system of the information of the population is capable to put a barrier on a way of false hearings. Therefore our advice - if will hear next “ a sensational detail “ concerning the danger connected with destruction of the chemical weapon, do not hurry to be frightened. It is not necessary to believe “ sarafannomu radio “ when there are really competent information centres. Be converted into one of them and receive the exhaustive qualified explanation on the thorny question.
In the general plan the concept of necessity the EAR starts with that understanding that the processes connected with storage stored many decades ago of the chemical weapon, not always give in to the realised intervention of the person. It is necessary to know that in process of physical ageing of the chemical weapon of different forms of warehousing from unpleasant unexpectedness it is impossible to be insured.
As to destruction processes they are absolutely operated, rather short on time and are based on the advanced technologies. And domestic technologies not only do not concede, but also in certain procedures surpass and go in advance the western.
Today Russia starts the second extremely responsible stage of performance of the Convention - to destruction by April, 29th, 2007 of the next 20 percent (8 thousand tons) chemical weapon. This stage will demand not only harmonious work of all links of system the EAR, the understanding and population support as those areas where it is spent is required and destruction, and the Russian public as a whole will be spent.