Anatoly Golomolzin: the Prices for gasoline will grow in proportion to inflation
When gasoline in Russia will start to become cheaper? How to distinguish good fuel from bad, without leaving from refuelling? What punishment waits for the oil industry workers who have broken terms of upgrade of oil refining factories? A deputy head of Federal antimonopoly service has responded to these and other questions in interview Anatoly Golomolzin.
In 2011 of the price for gasoline have considerably grown. Will cost how much fuel this year?
Anatoly Golomolzin: to Predict difficult. The prices develop of set of factors: situations in a foreign market, a tax policy, inflation and not in the last instance expenses which bear the companies. Oil recovery rises in price, as leaves in more and more remote areas. Plus oil industry workers now are engaged in upgrade of manufactures, and while it is not finished, the companies incur the raised costs. We, certainly, will not admit, that the prices grew from - for monopolistically actions of the oil companies. As to other factors, if the situation in foreign markets is stable, it is possible to assume that in 2012 of the price will grow with the rates close to inflation. But, probably, and with its some advancing. A principal cause - increase of excises. They and last year have brought the basic contribution to a fuel rise in price.
In the USA gasoline in the end of 2011 became cheaper some weeks successively, and in Russia is insignificant, but all - taki rose in price. Than it is possible to explain it?
Golomolzin: the American market differs not only from our market, but also from the European. In - the first, the price for oil at a stock exchange in New York on 5 - 10 dollars more low, than, for example, in London. Experts explain this paradox conditions of an arrangement of the basic extracting, oil refining and transport capacities. It is impossible to forget also that to the USA and the high level of a competition: both in oil extracting, and in oil refining, and on retail of oil products. Besides, in America very much high level of processing manufactures and depth of oil refining. Better to say, local pererabotchiki from one ton of oil receive much more qualitative gasoline, than ours. And fuel time in home market much - it is absolutely senseless to try to overestimate on it the prices. And more one important nuance - taxes. Their share in structure of cost of fuel in the USA - only 15 percent. In Russia - 55 - 65 percent, and in Europe are even more - 70 - 80 percent. That is why such difference in final cost of gasoline and diesel fuel.
In process of upgrade of our capacities the situation will change. Volumes of release of oil products will increase, excises will start to decrease, that at pererabotchikov there was a stimulus to let out better fuel. Before them it is necessary to start the production a problem in 2015 some gasoline of the standard of Euro - 5. For it the rate of the excise at the rate of about five thousand roubles for ton is provided. The excise on gasoline of the standard of Euro - 3 - an order 10 - 11 thousand roubles. A difference, as you can see, the essential.
It turns out that conditions for reduction of prices on gasoline in Russia will appear not earlier than 2015. While consumers should pay on a maximum, paying including upgrade of oil refining factories?
Golomolzin: the Prices reflect balance of supply and demand, factors in the market world and home markets. The active phase of upgrade first of all defines a direction of an expenditure of profit of the oil companies. As to consumers all - taki more correctly to say that the next years on their shoulders the increased consumer taxes can lay down - excises concern such category. We count on that growth of excises will be reflected not at once in fuel cost. At least not in the first months 2012, after all oil industry workers had time to save up certain safety factor. But we believe that in such questions is more correct not on someone to count, and to create institutional mechanisms that the situation remained steady. For this reason we suggested to raise excises gradually, with rate of inflation, and to make their flexible: at a rise in prices in a foreign market - to reduce, and at falling in a certain range, say, with 130 to 90 dollars for barrel, to the contrary, to raise. Then it would be possible to protect, on the one hand, home market from unreasonable growth of cost of fuel, and with another - to save economy from price fluctuations harmful to it. After all fuel - a key component for variety of sectors. Them seriously is in a fever from sharp price jumps.
This offer has not found support at the Ministry of Finance. Probably, it will be discussed still. While it is necessary to execute those decisions which have been accepted. But it is necessary to realise that the share of taxes in Russia in the nearest to steam - a three of years will grow in structure of cost of fuel, aspiring to the European level. It not the best variant for the Russian economy. By quantity of cars per capita we twice lag behind Europe. On an indicator of transport availability in aircraft - it is more than four times. In such situation to be guided by the Old World there is no sense - more weighed policy is necessary.
As there is an upgrade of oil refining factories?
Golomolzin: From approximately 20 companies which have signed with us of the agreement, the majority carry out and even are ahead of schedule, but is and lagging behind.
there is no money?
Golomolzin: For all companies the preferential mode of the taxation and application of the customs duties (the duty on oil products more low, than duties on oil, even in conditions when there was an alignment of duties on black oil and light oil products) so means at them are is established, as a matter of fact. Deviations from the schedule concern basically technical questions. At last December session of the governmental commission on thermal power station for elimination of defects control term - the end of March has been established. In April the first results of upgrade will be repeatedly discussed at session of this commission. By the way, some years ago oil industry workers already declared that will spend upgrade. Actually, having achieved decrease in duties on black oil, variety from them the promises only half have kept. And so I can tell with full confidence: such situation will not repeat any more. Upgrade process at all stages and on each object separately traces Rostehnadzor. That the company lets out qualitative fuel, should confirm Rostehregulirovanie. FAS holds this question on special control, and all information of our colleagues will be considered. To infringers we will apply the most rigid sanctions.
What, for example?
Golomolzin: We have warned at once the oil companies at a stage of signing of agreements that it will be double sanctions - one concern turnaround penalties on KoAP (in percentage of an annual gain of the company - the infringer), others - withdrawals of unreasonably received income. The sense of possible infringement of the antimonopoly law consists that if the necessary volume of qualitative fuel from - for failure of terms of upgrade of oil refining factories will not be put on the market, there can be a relative deficiency which in turn will lead to an unreasonable rise in prices. By data on the end of 2011, we had a plan advancing on release of winter diesel fuel, but backlog on summer solar oil. It is noncritical: a summer diesel engine at us make enough and 60 percent go for export. And here any deviations from the planned volumes of output of high-quality gasoline, winter diesel fuel and kerosene can turn back complexities for home market. Therefore control is necessary the strict.
By the way, about quality of fuel. How in Russia with it affairs are?
Golomolzin: Quality improves. That the consumer understood, he buys what fuel, there is an idea to mark qualitative gasoline directly on refuelling, in cash vouchers. If you have refuelled, for example, 95 - m gasoline of the fifth class, and its quality does not correspond to the standard, you have the right will make a complaint to the supplier and to those who carries out refuelling. We hope that the marks system will appear this year. Thus, accurate conformity between the price and quality will be established.
In 2011 FAS has finished the next trial with the oil companies which were pricing out fuel. How much penalties they have paid following the results of three waves?
Golomolzin: we Come nearer to twenty billions roubles. From them 15 billion roubles - penalties on the first and second waves. This money has already come to the budget. More than four billions roubles of penalties have been appointed on the third wave in the end of 2011. The decision under the penalty concerning one more of the oil companies it is expected in the first quarter 2012. The sums of penalties on the third wave will be transferred into the budget in 2012.
As the sums of penalties pay off?
Golomolzin: Proceeding their range of values which are set in the Code about administrative offences. From 1 to 15 percent from the gain sum on those goods on which the price has been unreasonably raised. The penalty size depends from aggravating and on softening circumstances. We will tell, if the company admits the fact of infringement and eliminates consequences sanctions can be minimum, as in a case with those whom we have fined within the limits of the third wave of antimonopoly affairs. Was differently earlier - oil industry workers had legal proceedings with us. Trials of such scale were the first in the Russian judiciary practice, therefore business moved ahead difficult. But as a result all our conclusions have been completely confirmed by the higher judicial instance, and the companies had to pay unprecedented penalties - one of the largest who only managed to be collected to antimonopoly bodies. Experts say that at least we have got to ten.
the Fourth wave will be?
Golomolzin: there Will be facts of infringements, there will be also affairs. But there are bases to believe that the situation changes for the better. Oil industry workers already understand that punishment inevitably and it is necessary to observe the law. We count that this year the uniform exchange system of trade in oil products will earn, and 15 percent of volumes of home market of fuel will be on sale at a stock exchange. Besides, we hope that our bills on market pricing, on features of a turn of oil products and under excises will be approved. These three packages will allow to create preconditions for work of the civilised market. We will achieve that have made in the same States about 50 years ago. There too there was a situation when the large quantity of infringements was fixed. antimonopolshchiki have started to apply penal sanctions, a criminal liability, the institute of exchange trade by then was just generated. But at them on it has left almost half a century. We do not have such stock of time. We, as all normal people, want to live well and now, to us has bothered to postpone it for the future. And we consider that we have a possibility to study not only on the errors or examples, but also on strangers.
It was supposed that the uniform exchange system will earn till the end of 2011. But terms should be transferred. Why?
Golomolzin: At platforms too different interests, and at us are not present a problem to start up all under one comb. On the contrary, we want, that each platform had possibility to bring the contribution to creation of uniform system. In the end of January we are going to spend conference with participation of representatives of the largest world platforms, foreign antimonopoly bodies, that once again “ to synchronise watches “. There is a variant to make all quickly, but it is not so good. But for us consecutive actions and qualitative result are important.
From - for what there were disagreements?
Golomolzin: There are different interpretations, for example, regarding commission fee. A leah there should be they uniform or not? We consider that are not present. Distinctions at a rate of commission fee will force each of platforms to raise quality of service. System work as a whole as a result will improve. Otherwise we will receive exclusive structure which will dictate not always adequate rules. By the way, from the beginning of this year the norm of the third antimonopoly package which regulates features of fair pricing on exchange platforms has come into force. That is stock exchanges will work now within the limits of direct norms of the antimonopoly law. Before everyone confirmed for herself rules independently, and not always they responded competition conditions. About it tell those affairs about infringements of the antimonopoly law which we considered last year concerning two oil stock exchanges.
When bills FAS of market pricing on oil and oil products and a turn of oil and oil products can be approved?
Golomolzin: it is difficult to tell. At them difficult destiny of the interdepartmental coordination. We hope that in the first quarter these documents will pass discussion in the government, and we would like, that it has ended with entering into the State Duma. Bills have been published on site FAS, they are aimed at formation of market prices, of monopolism overcoming on federal and the regional markets of oil products. There has passed a series of discussions of these bills. Participants of the market and experts with us are solidary. The Federation Council recommended to advance and approve such bills. There is a support among deputies of the lower chamber of parliament. One of our offers is reduced dividing retail and wholesale in vertically integrated oil companies that gas stations VINKov worked on an equal footing with the independent marketing companies and bought fuel on the same conditions. We yet do not offer rigid property division which has occurred in electric power industry. At a present stage and organizational isolation by activity kinds will be enough. It will not turn out to create equal conditions for a competition then we will bring an attention to the question on property division. Though some deputies with whom we discussed earlier this bill, were ready to go much further.