Grigory Berdennikov: Disarmament will proceed, as soon as in the USA ratify the Contract on prohibition of nuclear tests
How to pull together positions of the USA and Russia in sphere of restriction of nuclear arms? And than in the circumstances the non-governmental organisations can help official diplomacy?
In search of answers to the thorny questions razoruzhencheskoj summonses in capital Suomi have gathered leaders of the international movement “ Doctors of the world for prevention of nuclear war “ Paguoshsky movement of scientists and the International bureau of the world. In different years these organisations have been awarded for the selfless work of the Nobel Prize.
Today, at a turning-point Russian - the American relations, they have decided to exchange experience and to spend something like “ brain storm “. To dialogue the special envoy the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Grigory Berdennikov who has presented a position of our country on discussed questions has been invited. The correspondent has asked the known diplomat to accent most critical moments - an endured situation in whole and forthcoming Russian - the American negotiations, in particular.
Grigory Berdennikov: Long-term objectives, including idea of the denuclearized world, in the general plan are divided practically by all. But it is enough nekonkretno. Meanwhile there are problems which need to be solved urgently. Most a thorny question - how to achieve coming into force of the Contract on universal prohibition of nuclear tests. It is absolutely concrete thing.
And a stumbling-block here - a position of administration of the United States. Not present, but previous - George Bush. And concerning CTBT (the Contract on general prohibition of nuclear tests - DVZJAI, on - to ours) at them division party: republicans against, democrats - for. So at them always was.
: And now what forecast? At Barack Obama`s administration ratification is possible?
Berdennikov: I Think, it is possible. The US president promises that it will achieve. The question in, whether can. And if yes, when it occurs. It seems to us that if it not to make to the following conference on the Nonproliferation treaty of the nuclear weapon which should be called in the spring of next year, prospects at the conference gloomy enough.
RG: Without it it is difficult to influence the threshold countries?
Berdennikov: Certainly. Because how many myself I remember - and I am engaged 30 years in it - there was a requirement of all non-nuclear countries - all! - prohibition of tests of the nuclear weapon.
RG: Still demanded from the nuclear states, first of all from the USA and Russia, the distinct program and consecutive steps on reduction of nuclear arsenals - up to their complete liquidation. Achieved, that Moscow and Washington on years have painted the co-ordinated schedule and have accepted it to execution …
Berdennikov: It already the second. And the first with what all began - the Contract on general prohibition of nuclear tests. It was signed already by 180 countries, 140 - ratified. From the states of nuclear club by this time the contract was ratified by Great Britain, Russia and France. And Chineses have told: when the USA ratify, then also we. And here what now to do? All depends on the United States. When at Conference on disarmament there were negotiations on DVZJAI, in the USA in power there was a democratic administration. And we operated in contact. Certainly, between us there were contradictions, but they were overcome. Both we, and they then were for prohibition of nuclear tests. And then at them the administration was replaced, and all has changed.
RG: It is important, but only one of aspects. And on what else positions there are clashes of opinions? And than here diplomacy national can help official diplomacy?
Berdennikov: Understand, there is a certain way. We now, conditionally speaking, in one point, and it is required to reach the purpose - the world, free from the nuclear weapon. Adherence of this purpose was declared by presidents Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama. This way should be passed, and any “ srezki corners “ are impossible.
RG: Public organisations help? Or only get in the way?
Berdennikov: Certainly, help. They do correct and useful things. Sometimes, can, a bit naive …
RG: Run forward?
Berdennikov: In any sense. But for this purpose also there is a dialogue to explain, how we see road. Someone thinks that it is possible to jump and appear at once in a desirable point. But at once it will not turn out. All the same all stages need to be passed. And to pass so that on a course not to destabilise a situation. And it is difficult enough - to reach and escape …
RG: That now does not suit us most of all in a position of the United States?
Berdennikov: And we now do not know a position of the USA. Because it is not generated yet. At them and people on key posts not all are confirmed.
RG: In that case that ourselves offer in this situation?
Berdennikov: Presidents Medvedev and Obama have acted with the joint statement, decided to begin bilaterial negotiations. They will begin on those parametres which are designated by the first persons. A main point - how to co-ordinate concrete positions on the basis of these parametres to reach agreements. It in - the first. And in - the second - to achieve, that this agreement was essential that it really conducted to the purpose.
RG: At least, there should be a verification mechanism?
Berdennikov: Certainly. Both the verification mechanism, and the document should be legally obliging. Certainly, it is necessary to get rid of blockages which have collected at George Bush`s administration - first of all it concerns ABM systems.
RG: these Two processes in parallel cannot be developed?
Berdennikov: Well and how to make decisions in one direction if you do not know what will become in other? When it is not clear that will occur to defensive systems, to agree about fall of level offensive is all the same what to solve a mathematical problem with the unknown initial data. Same it is obvious. The more low you go, the bolshee the small system of the ABM has value even. Also such system not by us, and the United States is created. And at our borders. Words about that these systems in Europe are created against the North Korea or Iran, to put it mildly, do not convince.
Therefore if they seriously want to agree, it is necessary to solve and this problem. And here to official diplomacy can render the essential help the non-governmental organisations - through the possibilities to influence a position of politicians, legislators and on public opinion as a whole.