The chemical weapon
the Federal target program Destruction of stocks of the chemical weapon in the Russian Federation has been confirmed by the governmental order of Russian Federation N 305 from March, 21st, 1996. On - to the present she has earned in a new century. On October, 16th, 2003 at session of the Government of the Russian Federation results of its performance have been considered and legal decision N 38 according to which on ammunition together with other interested departments offers on correction of stages and terms of destruction of the chemical weapon in Russia should develop the Russian agency is confirmed. Updating was caused by outlined administrative reform and dynamics of economic development in the country.
Rukovodstvo Rosboepripasov has managed to carry out before abolition of the agency the careful analysis of realisation of the program the EAR and has suggested to bring in it a number of specifications.
In particular, object creation on chemical weapon destruction in settlement Maradykovsky the Kirov region is supposed to break into two stages. The unique technology on the basis of the method of destruction of poison gases developed by the Russian scientists directly in cases of large-sized aerial bombs should be originally realised. The beginning of these works is planned for 2006. Realisation of the first stage allows to pass to the second, the basic, that is to direct destruction of 8000 tons OV of type of Vi - iks, to finish which is planned on April, 29th, 2007.
the Special attention is required to objects on destruction of the chemical weapon around settlement Kizner (Udmurtiya) and cities Pike (Kurgan region).
In existing edition of the program Destruction of stocks of the chemical weapon in the Russian Federation transportation of artillery chemical ammunition from an arsenal in Kiznere on object of their destruction in Pike was provided. However program realisation has revealed a number of the moments which should be considered.
In particular, transportation of chemical ammunition from Kiznera in Pike attracts considerable financial costs. According to experts of the Ministry of Emergency Measures, it is necessary to provide without fail with means of individual defence of all citizens living along routes of transportation, and also to make special transport container for transportation of ammunition, on what is required to allocate in addition some billions roubles.
Railwaymen in turn insist on performance of special requirements by preparation of a route of transportation and formation of the special train.
As a result cost of transportations can essentially exceed object building on detoksikatsii chemical armours on a place, therefore it will be cheaper and more safe to build object in Kiznere, having excluded transportation of chemical ammunition on territory of Russia.
Building in frameworks the enterprise EAR on rassnarjazheniju and detoksikatsii all types of ammunition stvolnoj and jet aritillerii with fosforogranicheskimi poison gases, and also with ljuizitom, in Kiznere is planned to finish by 2009. In 2012 liquidation of all chemical ammunition stored on the given arsenal should be carried out.
the Priority direction in realisation of the program of destruction of the chemical weapon allocates building of objects in Kambarka, Pike and the item Maradykovsky, and also carrying out of a spadework on creation of objects in settlements Leonidovka and Pochep. For these purposes in 2004, by the specified calculations, probably, it is required to allocate in addition about two billions roubles.
With a view of loading decrease more active attraction of the financial assets given by the foreign states is planned for the budget. It is known that the declared help from the USA, the European Union countries and of some other states on performance of the program exceeds the EAR of one and a half billion dollars. Now it is concluded contracts for the sum of 262 million 820 thousand dollars, it is received and accustoms 183 million 360 thousand dollars.
the Abroad helps us, but is modest
the Currency which has come to Russia as the gratuitous donor help, makes only six percent from a total cost of created objects on destruction of the chemical weapon, but superfluous it in any way will not name. Therefore the international contacts on questions the EAR are spent rather actively. Here chronology of the most important actions only for this year:
- on January, 28th in Moscow the intergovernmental Agreement between Russia and the Swiss Confederation about cooperation in destruction of stocks of the chemical weapon in territory of the Russian Federation has been signed;
- on February, 6th in Moscow has taken place quadrilateral (Russia, Great Britain, Canada, the USA) a working meeting concerning coordination of joint actions within the limits of performance of the program of destruction of the chemical weapon;
- on February, 10th the general director of the Russian agency on ammunition Victor Holstov has carried on intensive negotiations with a management of the Ministry of Defence of the USA which are responsible for realisation of the International program of joint reduction of threat. Into structure of the American delegation, in particular, entered: P.Uejkfild - the Assistant Secretary of defence of the USA, J. Read - the director of political department of the program of joint reduction of threat at the device of the Minister of Defence of the USA, P.Maknelli - the head of the program of agency of the Minister of Defence of the USA on reduction of threat, D.Donelli - the head of the American branch on support of programs the EAR in Moscow, and also the new director of management of joint reduction of threat of agency for reduction of threat of the Ministry of Defence of the USA of J. Thomas Berd;
- from March, 2 till March, 5th delegation Rosboepripasov was with working visit to Great Britain and has taken part in the international conference the Initiative on cooperation in the field of non-distribution and disarmament ;
- on April, 15th have taken place tripartite Russian - britansko - the Canadian consultations on current and perspective questions the EAR. In particular, the project of equipment was discussed by an electric equipment of the Shchuchansky substation created in interests of object on destruction of the chemical weapon in Pike at the expense of the means of Great Britain, the European Union and Norway. The building prospect in the same place the access railway from object of storage to object of destruction of the chemical weapon at the expense of the financial help of Canada was considered;
- visit of the Russian delegation to the USA for participation in regular semi-annual meeting on discussion of questions of building of object on destruction of the chemical weapon in Pike from April, 26th till May, 1st has taken place.
it is necessary to remind that the given object is intended for destruction of all types of ammunition stvolnoj and the jet artillery, equipped fosfororganicheskimi by poison gases, and he plays one of key roles in all program the EAR in Russia.
In the course of the international negotiations the Russian side has passed the western partners a full package of documents on all objects of destruction of the chemical weapon in which foreign participation is supposed. Our budget is counted very carefully, and its realisation is accessible to financial control at any stage of works. It is necessary to add that rhythm of performance of the program the EAR in Russia in certain degree all - taki depends on rhythm of receipt of the donor help from - for a boundary. And this help, alas, happens, and is late. It is necessary to hope that foreign financial support of our programs will enter - taki in a stable channel and joint reduction of threat will be filled with the powerful currency maintenance.
the Science on boundaries of chemical attack
Destruction of the chemical weapon goes by means of various chemical processes. Working out really proryvnyh technologies which were not applied, engaged earlier including experts in the field of military chemistry, that is the people which trade not too assumed ability more likely effectively to create for a long time the chemical weapon, instead of it is safe to liquidate it.
With a view of scientifically - technical support of functioning of object in Mountain following researches are conducted:
- technological parametres of processes of destruction of poison gases on real λώθηθςΰ environments, " are specified; double mixes ljuizita and yperite, threefold Mixes of yperite and ljuizita in dihloretane, and also not taken rests of yperite and ljuizita in tanks;
- processes of destruction of the decontaminating solutions containing yperite and ljuizit, and also destruction of the oil products containing yperite are fulfilled;
- are specified thermochemical and reologicheskie characteristics of the real reactionary weights received after destruction of yperite, directed on burning, and methods of their decrease vjazkostnyh characteristics are developed.
With a view of scientifically - technical support of building and commissioning of objects in Pike and in Kambarke 12 researches and development are carried out. Among priority it is possible to name the following:
- working out of technology of safe delivery of chemical ammunition from a place of their storage to a recycling place;
- working out of a method of sparing recycling of cases of chemical ammunition after evacuation OV, decontaminations and their heat treatments;
- specification kinetiki destructions of poison gases of type of Vi - iks taking into account the data received at spent before skilled works.
Complex scientific researches are conducted on completion and perfection of technologies of alkaline hydrolysis ljuizita, destructions ljuizita.
technical decisions on systems of extraction of the rests ljuizita from capacities, their subsequent decontamination and recycling, on creation of effective system of monitoring of poison gases on object Are finished and perfected. Technical offers on conversion of objects after end of works on utter annihilation ljuizita are developed.
And people are not forgotten
Considerable attention in the corrected federal target program Destruction of the chemical weapon in the Russian Federation it will be given the decision of social problems. At us as - that was historically moved that on the first place always there was a business, and the people who were carrying out the greatest fulfilments, were provided by a residual principle. Frequently those who erected the present palaces of the socialist industry, for years lived in dugouts.
At realisation of the program the EAR, maybe, for the first time for all national history the human factor have considered initially. And recently on everything that concerns to socially - household sphere, the accent is even more strengthened.
For example, the object on liquidation of the chemical weapon in Kambarke just prepares for building, but the first stage of a boiler-house of Northern residential area in this city is already put in operation. Reconstruction of the second turn of a boiler-house (80 % building - installation works are executed and 60 % of the equipment are established) is conducted. Besides, two are constructed and occupied 60 - room apartment houses and a hostel on 96 places. Building of one more 60 - a condominium of the improved lay-out proceeds. As indemnification of psychological costs which have dropped out on inhabitants of Kambarksky area, expenses on building of objects of social sphere are increased to 935 million roubles.
In a city Pike are constructed and placed in operation school on 590 pupils, an apartment house on 24 apartments, water waters of Chumljak - Pike, a gas pipeline - tap of Peschano - Kaledino - the Sensation - the Pike, 17 apartment houses of farmstead type. Building and equipment by the advanced equipment of the Central regional hospital proceeds. Two apartment houses on 127 apartments, a kindergarten on 90 places also are under construction.
For all the state
For timely realisation of the program the EAR will respond the state customer who operates actions of its executors responds and provides an effective utilisation of the means allocated for destruction of the chemical weapon.
the Organization of practical works is assigned to Federal management on safe storage and destruction of the chemical weapon. Functions of the state customer were executed by the Russian agency on ammunition.
According to the Decree of the President of Russian Federation N 314 from March, 9th, 2004 About system and structure of federal enforcement authorities Rosboepripasy have been abolished. The Federal agency on the industry became the assignee in sphere of rendering of the state services and managements of property. Functions on acceptance of standard legal certificates in a field of activity Rosboepripasov are passed the Ministry of the industry and power of the Russian Federation.
by the Governmental order of Russian Federation N 190 from April, 8th, 2004 of a problem of realisation of functions in the field of chemical disarmament, including functions of the state customer of the state defensive order and corresponding federal target programs, are assigned to Federal agency on the industry.
Now, despite of radical it is administrative - administrative reorganisation, works on destruction of the chemical weapon go in full conformity with earlier confirmed schedules. And without dependence how is called now and as, probably, the executive office which is responsible for realisation of the program the EAR will be called in the future, for all the state will respond. Therefore - that it is possible to be assured that Russia as a result will carry out of all international obligations on destruction of the chemical weapon. Other to us simply it is not given.