Presidential messages in the different countries
Exactly ten years in Russia there is a tradition according to which the head of the state is converted to members of both chambers of parliament with the annual Message. It is not broken and now. Specially for the sake of this event the Duma has transferred the session per day, and the Federation Council - at some o`clock.
the Private affair of each inhabitant of Dmitrovka and Ohotnij rjad - whom to feel on this gala day. The people`s choice, the free person in the free country, the representative of elite, correct oprichnikom or eventually a congregation part... Tradition sources give the grounds for all these versions at once.
In Russia the first Message of the president to Federal Meeting “ About strengthening of the Russian state “ has sounded on February, 24th, 1994 from Boris Yeltsin`s mouth. According to the Constitution accepted in 1993 such reference is for the head of our state not only the right, but also a duty. Custom “ have translated with American “: the first country which has legislatively fixed practice of Messages, were the USA - in 1790 the first president of this country George Vashington has acted for the first time with the similar reference to the Congress. But Americans too, as usual, only “ have bought the licence “ and patents for the invention are found out in much deeper historical layers.
the Christ it is not touched - he did not write down the sermons and did not entitle. But its followers - apostles acted quite in the spirit of present speech writers and the propagandists working on “ target audience “. Apostle Peter, for example, in the messages to Romans, corinthians, Phoenicians and Jews stated harmonous system of philosophical views and practical recommendations on a subject of a saintly life and spiritual perfection. Television, fortunately, in those days was not found, and manuscripts do not burn. Each interested person can and familiarise to the present day with apostolic to messages and find in them tens differences from own guilty practice. The same it is difficult to whom to be torn through biblical texts, are helped by church. However, not orthodox, but its roman catholic branch. The Pope regularly enough appeals urbi et orbi (to a city and the world), and can do it time and again in a year, and as required. Orthodoxy considers as the most important thing a prayer, therefore our Patriarch with messages does not act. But from statements on “ to present acute problems “ it too, as a rule, does not leave. By the way, hierarches of religious faiths necessarily are present at a hall where the president reads the Message, no less than other especially important persons for the country and representatives of all branches of the power.
From the Russian tsars the first something like the message was said by Ivan the Terrible - in 1564 he has told to clergy and posadskim to people about “ offences and wines “ Put to it aristocracy of those times. Was oprichnina and all with it connected further. Later Russian sovereigns concerned parliament cool, communicating with it through the representatives.
For the American presidents the inaugural speech, than those words which they say before congressmen and senators is more important. The well-known slogan “ do not ask that the country can make for you, - ask that you can make for the country “ there was all - taki is told to the American citizens directly, passing elective intermediaries. But are remembered ruzveltovskoe “ forgive to the government debts as you forgive to the sick father “ or “ giving freedom to slaves, we provide freedom free “ Avraam Linkolna is therefrom, from messages. Though sometimes in the USA they were not disclosed on a broader scale: Thomas Jefferson, the third US president, simply passed the congress the text in writing to avoid grandiosity and to hide absence of oratorical abilities.
So proceeded hundred years while the tradition was broken in 1913 by Vudro Wilson. “ probably, the president will read the own report not worse, than the official “ - he has told, and heirs it is opinion have divided. Now the American presidents address “ About country position “ also direct to the Congress the budgetary message annually in the beginning of January. Experts name this performance broadcast on TV channels in a prime - a time, “ a combination of traditions of throne speeches of the British monarchs and messages of the Pope “. Or - that is more correct - Protestant sermons, the beginning which was put in 1517 by Martin Luther Wittenberg “ Theses “. Anyhow, in America the role of messages is faster propaganda, than “ program “: They show that the president “ holds a hand on pulse and on a throat “ but no more that. All of them - taki are not considered as the large political document are in a greater degree “ action “.
In other countries all according to the Constitution. The French president before the nation acts in day of a national feast on July, 14th, and to parliament (which it can at any moment itself and dismiss) is converted in writing, and the message is not discussed. Heads of the state in Italy and Germany possess much smaller state powers, than the prime minister - the minister and the chancellor. Therefore their references “ program “ to be and cannot are either a semi-official organ, or a New Year`s congratulation and etc. Monarchs (Spanish, Belgian, Swedish, Norwegian, etc., and also Its Majesty the English queen) are converted directly to “ the nations “ - though and in parliament act regularly enough. Throne speech of the queen in chamber of the lords, opening sessions of the British parliament, - from the category “ firm English traditions “.
In the CIS countries leaders of Azerbaijan and Turkmenia do not act with the message to parliament only. All the others operate the same as also their Russian colleague.
the General for all presidential messages to legislators - that they in overwhelming majority of cases are not discussed. All comments - only after ceremony end. For this purpose in parliaments of many countries of the world, as well as at bottom of a ladder of the Big Kremlin palace, are on duty, pushing away each other elbows, journalists and photographers, and deputies how much can is majestic float to them in close embraces.