Absence of a modern transport infrastructure will limit quality of life roossijan
Adjustment of transport system of Russia goes within the limits of the program documents accepted at federal level: the Federal target program “ Development of transport system of Russia in 2010 - 2015 “ and the project “ Transport strategy of the Russian Federation till 2030 “ Strategy of development of a railway transportation of the Russian Federation till 2030, Concepts of development of an air field network on 2008 - 2020 and other documents.
All of them are aimed at formation of uniform transport space of Russia and assume the decision of some system problems. First of which - imbalance of development of uniform transport system of Russia. Five subjects of the Russian Federation have no railways, about 40 thousand settlements are not provided by all-the-year-round automobile communication.
Such unbalanced and not co-ordinated development of separate types of transport is defined by different investment activity and an irrational parity in transport balance of the country. So, the volume of investments into air transport has made 13,6 billion roubles that in 22,5 times there are less than investments into pipeline transport. Other problem - loss of coordination and a mismatch of development of separate types of transport and productive forces of the country. So, extent “ bottlenecks “ on throughput of a railway system makes about 30 percent of extent of directions of a network of the railways providing 80 percent of all cargo work of a railway transportation.
the railway system constrains Slaborazvitaja mobility of the population and development of variety of regions rich with natural resources, such, as Republic Sakha (Yakutia), Transbaikalian edge, the Amur region. In immediate prospects discrepancy between low level of its development and an increasing demand of economy and a society on transport services becomes the main problem of transport branch.
branch Underfinancing “ freezes “ building of highways. So, road Chita building - Khabarovsk, begun in 1966, or roads Khabarovsks - Lidoga - Vanino with an entrance to Komsomolsku - on - the Cupid which, under optimistical forecasts, is planned to finish only in 2010.
Operating capacities of a port infrastructure do not allow to provide in full processing of the Russian foreign trade cargoes in our ports. In this connection the share of the Russian fleet in the foreign trade transportations makes no more than 4 percent.
the Geography of investment plans of regions causes potential directions of goods traffics and requirement of subjects of Federation for development of a transport skeleton of the country. The obvious dominant of investment projects in east part of the country which realisation will define new central points of development of a transport network is traced.
In the Strategy project as well as in FTSP, the basic accent in development of a transport infrastructure till 2015 is made on stimulation aglomeratsionnogo growth in the European part of Russia. Development of the east of the country is planned at the expense of buildings of railroad lines of Berkakit - Tommot - Yakutsk, Midnight - Obsky, Kyzyl - Kuragino, Salekhard - Nadym, Biisk - Gornoaltajsk, and also end of building of highways “ Kolyma “ “ Yenisei “ “ Vilyui “ and also lines Ì60, Ì53.
In long-term prospect development of a transport skeleton will occur at the expense of reconstruction operating and buildings of new railroad lines.
In 2015 - 2020 in transport system of Russia there should be basic changes: gruzootpravlenie will grow in 1,4 times, passazhirootpravlenie - in 1,4 times, density of a network of the railways - in 1,2 times, density of highways with a firm covering - in 1,8 times.
the Essential lack of new system of strategic planning there is an imbalance branch and territorial aspects. So, practically 70 percent of financial assets will be directed on development of a railway transportation and a road economy, while on an internal sailing charter - only 1,2 percent.
development prospects gruzoobrazujushchih and strategic railroad lines, including the North Siberian trunk-railway, railroad lines of Belkomur and Ural Mountains Industrial - Ural Mountains Polar Are not clear.
the contradiction of the purposes put in Transport strategy Is observed. Reduction of a share of city electric transport in cities of Russia from 28 percent in 2007 to 8 percent by 2030, solving a problem of optimum use of the limited city space, reduces possibility of decrease in harmful influence of transport by environment - one of the purposes of the project of Strategy.
Not enough attention is given prospects of development of aircraft, including to small aircraft. However remaining lacks of system of planning have the prolonged character, and consequences of their untimely elimination will be shown in long-term prospect. Thus the next years risks of resource maintenance become actual.
In Russia there was a situation, at which requirement of transport projects for investment resources the next 15 years (with 2008 on 2022) Only on the declared objects of private business reaches an order 6,1 trln roubles (in the prices of 2007) that makes 18,5 percent from country gross national product (gross national product of the Russian Federation in 2007 - 32,98 trln roubles). While volumes of investments for the past of 15 years (1993 - 2007) In building of new objects of a transport infrastructure have made 120 billion roubles. That is the next 20 years of the investment into transport branch should increase more than in 50 times in relation to the investments which have been carried out in the past of 15 years.
In the federal target program (in the prices of corresponding years from the VAT) it is put nearby 13,5 trln roubles, in Transport strategy - 172,3 trln roubles. Thus, in 2015 - 2025 in transport system of Russia it is planned to enclose 159 bln. roubles. Thus the list of the objects planned in FTSP and Transport strategy, includes the projects planned to realisation not only the state, but also private investors.
Under the federal target program (2010 - 2015) More it is necessary to involve than 60 percent of investments from off-budget sources - from private investors and from Investment fund of the Russian Federation. Taking into account that the volume of Investment fund on development of a transport infrastructure makes 100 billion roubles a year the maximum investments for 5 years can make 0,5 trln roubles, that is private business for 2010 - 2015 in development of a transport infrastructure should enclose nearby 7,7 trln roubles, or 1,5 trln roubles annually. Thus, according to Federal bodies of statistics, in 2006 private business has enclosed in development of a transport complex all 212 billion roubles taking into account Open Society investments “ the Russian Railway “.
the Project of Transport strategy assumes that from off-budget sources it is necessary for state to involve in 2010 - 2015 8,2 trln roubles, in long-term prospect - 98,7 trln roubles.
Abundantly clear that the government of the Russian Federation for the decision of existing problems has gone by the way of world powers which apply practice is state - private partnership, transferring in time long-term using to business objects of transport branch. From 2005 a number of the laws regulating mechanisms GCHP is accepted: “ About kontsessionnyh agreements “ “ About development Bank “ “ About seaports in the Russian Federation “ “ About highways “; rules of formation and use of budgetary appropriations of Investment fund of the Russian Federation are confirmed. But practice it is state - private partnership only works enough.
Realization only large investment projects on transport will demand creation in 2010 - 2020 about 500 thousand new workplaces. Growth of new workplaces on transport will be accompanied by increase in number of workplaces in other branches of economy. As a result at preservation of current number of economically active and jobless population, according to Federal bodies of statistics, by 2020 the saved up deficiency of personnel resources will exceed 14 million persons.
As a whole irrespective of a choice of the scenario of development, power raw or innovative, absence of a modern technological transport infrastructure will limit development not only separate branches, but also quality of life of the population as a whole. Efficiency of realisation FTSP and Transport strategy in many respects depends on mutual coordination of interests of the state, regions and business, and also introduction of effective mechanisms of attraction of investments into transport branch of the country.