To Michael Shvydkomu - 60 years
Michael Shvydkoj - one of the brightest, inconsistent, causing burning interest, emotions and responses, figures of the Russian establishment. Today to Michael Efimovichu 60 years are executed.
What to remember to it this day? How it, perfectly playing the piano, has created in 9 - m a class 195 - j the Moscow school a jazz - gangs and executed together with the friend, the messmate and the future actor Igor Kostolevsky “ dance of small swans “ responded then “ a ministerial tap dance “ on television? Or how the best pupil of school on the physicist and the mathematician has arrived in GITIS, becoming then the doctor of theatre science, and almost 20 years were let out by magazine “ Theatre “ hardly probable not the most powerful cultural urological edition of stagnant years? And can, how has thought up TV channel “ Culture “ for what together with colleagues has received the State award of the Russian Federation? Or started by it on a post of the minister of culture Bolshoi theatre repair? Or the procedure which has caused an alarm of transfer of Germany moved to time of war of drawings and pocherkushek old masters? We then will understand, in what have resulted shouts of its foes: “ we will not give a span of another`s earth! “ and “ Russia - the native land Bremen djurerov! “. And can, is better ask about all the Michael Efimovicha? We only congratulate him on the anniversary, a new state post, we wish health and all successes.
Jokes about Shvydkogo firsthand
: Jokes about Shvydkogo know?
Michael Shvydkoj : Jokes about Shvydkogo I know, of course, much. And all know that I sleep at theatre that I am late for lectures that I do not like to accept examinations. It is all favourite bajki. There is also a classical joke which has composed Ira Myagkov during my work in magazine “ Theatre “. I always rolled up manuscripts, them was much, and I tried not to print them, but thus to people to talk lovely. Therefore the joke sounds so: “ Hello “ - Shvydkoj " has told lies;.
RG : Well, hello. Also what the power does with the person?
Shvydkoj : It depends on the person. In general, as has told when - that lord Ekton, any power corrupts. And the absolute power corrupts absolutely. But I consider that all depends on the person. While you lose irony in relation to yourself, the sensation of the power can make with you anything you like.
RG : In what office you sit now and what office was for you the happiest where you felt on the place?
Shvydkoj: Know, when you sit in a room two on three metres with a huge window on Herzen`s street, 49 where there was a magazine “ Theatre “ and where I have stayed the responsible secretary ten years and there was young, and nearby a magazine “ Friendship of the people “ both restaurant TSDL, and a heap of other magazines, and all time to you come people, drink, fray, understand that we then have created to ourselves very happy world. And now I sit in an office of the former minister of foreign trade of the USSR of Yury Leonidovicha Brezhnev. An office good. Whether I there will be happy, I do not know.
RG : What asked from minister Shvydkogo more often and what request was the most unexpected?
Shvydkoj : More often from any minister ask money. Now I in happy position. I speak to all: “ Children, I am ready on any help, any council, on any letter, I am ready to beg for you, but I am a person without money “. Also should tell that for the first time for long time I at words “ Audit Chamber “ “ Office of Public Prosecutor “ “ OBEP “ and to it similar has ceased to shudder. That is, of course, as the person from “ ranshego time “ I react to them. But, as I do not dispose of material resources, to me it became easy. And from unexpected requests... Besides, when people come and do not ask money, it always very pleasant unexpectedness.
RG : Both now, and before you appear for an evening on three, at five solemn meetings, ceremonies, anniversaries with congratulations. Did not mix up, whom on what to congratulate?
Shvydkoj : No, all - taki never mixed up, it absolutely beastliness would be. But that terrible in such life, it that you always leave from the covered table. You with anybody cannot drink, because at you following, and then still, both again, and still the following. And - never you will drink, and it is already hopeless.
RG : And that do, when to you the person with shout rushes: “ Misha! Michael Efimovich! “ and you in an emphasis do not remember it?
Shvydkoj: I always pretend that it I know. Perhaps it is bad, but represent, as it is possible to offend the person who rushes with shout: “ Misha, you remember, how we served in the Shadow play in Syktyvkar! “ and you say that never were in Syktyvkar! Represent, what insult. I try to be polite and something to low.
RG : How you was called dock torskaja the dissertation?
Shvydkoj: “ a humanism Problem at world theatre of the XX-th century “. Excuse for pathos.
RG : What pension at you from tomorrow?
Shvydkoj : I do not know, what pension at me. It will be ministerial, but I not so want to know. As soon as you start to learn, what at you will be pension, you are attached to what hospital on an old age of years and how to use free journey, means, already all. Recently me offend, asking: “ And you have a social card of the Muscovite? “ hinting at my social grey hairs. I answer: “ No! “
RG : What most unfair criticism in your address was remembered and has especially offended?
Shvydkoj : In my address a lot of the unfair has been told. I never paid to this attention and only once had legal proceedings with the newspaper “ Truth “. It was in the middle of 90 - h years. For that I took defined and all of a known position on a restitution - from my point of view reasonably - civilised, - the newspaper “ Truth “ named me almost the German spy. My father was still live. The person who during war has lost the first family. Which itself was the disabled veteran of the first group, has passed Stalingrad, the officer. Here then I have started to have legal proceedings with them because it there was an injustice under the relation not to me, and to my father. It were 90 - e years with all these restitutsionnymi scandals, me accused almost of complicity to fascists. And my father could not hear German speech many long years after war. I studied in GITIS with Germans from GDR, and when they appeared in our house, for the father it was heavy. Here it was the greatest injustice. Once again I will repeat - not under the relation to me, it is nonsense, and in relation to parents. The father offended, when write that I was born on September, 5th, 1948 in Kirghizia, “ Where the family was in evacuation “. Actually the father there served, and mum worked after distribution. And the father had not evacuation, and Stalingradsky fight. Therefore to it it was insulting, and to me it is insulting for it.
RG : whether Remember the best draw in the life when you played others or you have played?
Shvydkoj : I in general - that do not like to play people. I am afraid, knowing that people are sometimes lost, are trapped. And I was played once by the present minister of culture Alexander Alekseevich Avdeev. It was as follows. My wife has left for an anniversary of our companion, it then worked as the constant representative of the president in the Siberian administrative district, Leonid Vadimovicha Drachevsky. I spent her to Novosibirsk, and Avdeev who then was the ambassador in France suddenly calls to me, and speaks: “ Misha, listen, I here went by the Triumphal arch and saw Marina “. I speak: “ Sasha, throw you. It in Novosibirsk. It cannot be “. - “ Yes is not present, well I could not mix it. And in general it near to me. Now will take the call and some words " will tell to you;. It is necessary to tell that I have strained. Really, my wife has taken the call and nichtozhe sumnjashesja speaks: “ Misha, I call to you from Paris. So it has turned out. I here Sashu have met “. And so on. I could not exhale minute one and a half. I had a shock. But then all - taki has remembered that there was a meeting of ambassadors after which them have dispatched on the country to get acquainted with Russian life. And Avdeev have sent to Siberia. But first hundred seconds... Spent the girl to Novosibirsk, and it in Paris...
We have endured a great epoch
RG : As you have changed for these years, we see. And what will tell about changes of culture during life?
Shvydkoj : I have come to theatrical institute. It was very happy time. Great masters who for a hand greeted Stanislavsky and Nemirovich - Danchenko were live. When on a corridor of theatrical institute there was Zavadsky, all were involuntarily pressed into walls: beautiful, with a bald head framed with a nimbus of a grey hair, - a surprising show! I listened to Pavel Aleksandrovicha Markova`s lectures which by then 45 years has been connected with Art theatre. I do not speak about the direct teachers. It both Grigory Nersesovich Bojadzhiev, and my supervisor of studies July Iosifovich Kagarlitsky. Bojadzhiev was engaged in France, classicism. Kagarlitsky - not only English Education, but also science fiction, Wells. His wife, Raisa Nikolaevna Pomerantseva, was the remarkable translator, translated Dickens, Fildinga, a comedy of an epoch of Restoration, a remarkable family. Bojadzhiev was “ the father of all students “. It collected us at home on first of January, young post-graduate students. Alexey Bartoshevich, Vidas Siljunas - present masters of theatre science, and nearby coryphaeuses - Alexander Abramovich Anikst, Yury Petrovich Ljubimov, then the young art director of Theatre on Taganke. There was Boris Zingerman, came the Maya Tourist`s Ovsky. In the house at it the elite of the Russian theatre science gathered, in this sense it was the person - the collector.
Very few people from us went abroad, and in foreign theatre were interested, all was studied under books. As I then read any foreign magazines which could be got in spetshrane I often acted with messages that occurs at today`s western theatre unlike present time much, and many thought that I often there go. That is erroneous, as though I and should study in England, me there have not started up - for the known or unknown reasons.
in general, I have come to institute when the Soviet theatre worried blossoming. Old men MHATa were live, and it was possible to see on a scene of Gribova, Stanitsyna, Androvsky, I do not speak about Stepanovoj, about legend MHATa Alexander Komissarove - well-known Skamejkine from “ Circus “. It was possible to see great old men and old women of Small theatre - Ilinsky, Heats, the boy I have still hooked on Veru Pashennuju, Gogolev was live... And on the other hand, there was great, innovative, reforming concepts about life a theatre “ the Contemporary “ led by Efremovym. There was a galaxy of young and madly talented people. There was Efros at the Children`s theatre which performances I looked, going to school, and over theatre the wisest Maria Osipovna Knebel supervised. There was Yury Ljubimov A bit later. But there was also Leonid Heifetz. There was Mark Zaharov as the director of student`s theatre of the Moscow State University and as the actor of Theatre of miniatures. In Peter there was Tovstonogov, and we went by a train footboard there literally to see “ the Idiot “ and “ the Grief from mind “. Have found still performances of Ohlopkova, there were Alexey Dmitrievicha Popova`s performances...
there was surprising theatrical time. The great tradition, in general, has exhausted, pressed down by ideological car of the end 40 - h - the beginnings 50 - h years. But there was a moment of its transformation talent, impudence and a surprising theatrical scent of young men. In Peter Tovstonogov, in Moscow - Efremov was the master.
RG : How you have worried after blowing forty years?
Shvydkoj: Well, I almost grumble, as the old person. But then there was other, special time. We lived in the country where art played enormous and not only an art role. Only in Russia the phrase could be born: “ you can not be the Poet, and the citizen to be obliged “. Only in the USSR Evtushenko could tell: “ the Poet in Russia more than the poet “. These are the phenomena of the special country where as Vasily Rozanov wrote, life always was poor, and the literature great. And it was both happiness, and tragedy. When Soviet Union has collapsed and have failed ideologemy the country where outstanding works of art were created has disappeared. We spoke about theatre, but there was a tremendous literature - from Belova to Trifonova. There was a remarkable cinema - from Tarkovsky to Bondarchuk. All palette. And here censorship has failed, and the country has failed. I remember, how Gorbachev has given interview in 87 - m to year whether the newspaper “ Mond “ whether “ Figaro “ that in the USSR there is no censorship more. And I was called by the friend from Switzerland in horror: “ What nightmare! You will lose all art achievements based on “ ezopovom language “! “ Partly it has appeared the rights. The direct publicism at first has gone. In the beginning 90 - h life has thrown down a challenge to art, it having appeared more important it. We never could understand, why in the West art exists so strange. Why writers there on life boondocks, why they not masters of thoughts, not crowd idols? And the matter is that Soviet Union was absolutely idealistic country. Communists swore Marx that life defines consciousness, but for them it was a lie. They created new religion, tried to create the new person and new belief. It was not possible, because the person has appeared too resisting material. In it crash of any utopias - in resistance of the person. For any moment the utopia wins, and then all falls off. And when we have started to build capitalism it was found out that art is a competition, instead of the social order for alteration of the person. And art to it has appeared is not ready. One business - struggle against the Soviet mode, against censorship, the power, and another matter - struggle with itself, with the person, with the Lord. Art was not ready to universal tragedy.
And here, appear, an art checkmate in relation to life. But, fortunately, the Russian art - a powerful substance. Has passed twenty years, and I see, how art again gains in strength. And not only in a quantitative sense. We let out more films, than at the Soviet power. Now we have more than theatres and more performances, than then. Leaves more names of books. Art has surpassed today everything in quantitative parametres that was at the Soviet power. I do not speak already about quantity of channels of television and quantity of newspapers and magazines. But I see, how types quality the literature. As types quality theatre. As there are new names. My senile grumbling, in essence, is not meaningful. I am a happy person. From the country where art was more interesting and more important, than life, I have got to the country where art for any moment, appear, has suffered defeat in comparison with life calls, but here again gains in strength. I will not name names, it is a lot of them. It is Enough to name Makanin`s last novel “ Asan “ and near to it of young Varlamov`s book and Bykova to understand that everything is all right. And these twenty years of freedom have played an enormous role. The great Russian culture has grown in a situation notFreedom and consequently always bore huge cargo of civilisation. And these twenty years of freedom art was recustomized and now does things which we, simple inhabitants, not always understand but by which art should do. All ahead!
Cultural isolation of Russia will not be
RG : What did you manage to make, than you be proud, and for what, on the contrary, be ashamed?
Shvydkoj : Something was possible, certainly. That we have begun such reconstruction of the Bolshoi theatre, instead of face lifting, it, I consider, correctly. And that have begun the big process of reconstruction of a complex of the Pushkin museum. And that reconstructed Novosibirsk opera and ballet theatre. That is the big things have got moving forward. And it is a shame with conditions in which there live our students. Because hostels of our high schools of arts are barracks 20 - h years where children from modern apartments move. With it it is necessary to do something urgently.
RG : Know, what problems soon will rise before the new minister of culture?
Shvydkoj : Let he understands it. I wish its only good luck and anything more.
RG : you now on work in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs where represent an export variant of culture?
Shvydkoj : Yes, I there the new character, but for the first time I have come to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1982. I was the rector of university marksistsko - a Lenin aesthetics of the Krasnopresnensky district committee of party, and we should give lectures there. In the Ministry of Foreign Affairs worked intelligent people are more tremendous. With one of the first I have got acquainted with Alexander Pavlovichem Bondarenko, it then managed the European department. It obrazovannejshy, intelligentnejshy the person who, for example, about internal life of the Bolshoi theatre knew much more, than I. midovskih people I knew many and on the work in the culture ministry. And all - taki I there the new character, try to behave quietly. I do not play a role of the hooligan a children`s playground, which has come to break there all toys. I sit, I look narrowly. Many of the colleagues I know, with some on “ you “ but in general I try to behave decently.
RG : And see prospects of what should make?
Shvydkoj : in general, well enough them I represent. During such periods as today when all international relations strain, the culture starts to play very important role. Naturally, I will try not to do much harm to the international relations. I think that my stay there will not be senseless and formal.
RG : Instead of be afraid, what isolation of Russia will damage to many cultural plans?
Shvydkoj : Isolation will not be, no. People of culture is a special type of people. At me very good personal relations and with the European art workers, and with American, and in the east - in China, in India, in Japan. I try to work now in such personal quality.
RG: And what will tell about relations with the Georgian intelligency?
Shvydkoj: I can tell only one: there was a tragedy. Adventure has begun saakashvilievskaja, from - for which have interrupted not only diplomatic, but also many human relations. I do not want to tell that the people have quarrelled, I hope that before will not reach. But that the people have not quarrelled, the intelligency of two countries should undertake any huge efforts. It is very important, and I will be engaged in it.
From a TV screen in life and back
RG : That will be this television year with yours “ the Cultural revolution “ and other transfers?
Shvydkoj : On “ the Cultural revolution “ the contract on sixteen programs since September is signed. We will make them, will sign any other contract. Or will not sign. That occurs to transfer “ Life is fine “ - it is not clear. It have suddenly started to show on TV channel “ House “ without having asked and at all without having informed. I have learnt about it from TV program. Usual such manner of heads of TV channels. “ a shelter of comedians “ like will go on the first channel where it treat kindly. We with Andrey Kozlovym and Natalia Stetsenko think of new projects, and, can, for the following season something will turn out. I would like more publicism.
RG : And all - taki, coming back to the biography: what was transition “ the guy Mishi “ from a party in chiefs and ministers?
Shvydkoj : the Most important thing - not to forget that ministerial life rather short and comes to an end. It is necessary to remember that you always “ you will leave in the world “ you will become the pensioner, you will stand in a queue in social security. If you remember it, will decently behave with people, and all will be normal. And if you think, how my grandfather that has caught God for a beard, - he, truth said, was more roughly expressed, - then there comes the end. I tried to concern all validly.
RG : When it is more difficult to be the showman - in the rank of the minister or midovskogo the worker?
Shvydkoj : At me very solemn name of a present post - “ the special representative of the president on the international cultural cooperation “. Solemnly obliging. Even my mum when I, being the minister, beat a tap dance in transfer “ Life is fine “ understood that it is not so good, but suffered. And now speaks: “ Misha, can, it is not necessary it is all to do, and? You all - taki “ the special representative of the president “! “ But I consider that everything that I do on television, especially in transfer “ Life is fine “ is an attempt to give to people a few good and heat. People do not have not enough good, it is necessary for them. I after all am More than anything also I am not able to do. Only I try to make life to people hardly - is more warmish...