Hillocks: Strategy of development of astronautics is not equitable to interests of Russia
the Document is hung out for discussion. And, as have noticed in Russian Space Department, offers arrives much. At the same time, under the information, many experts consider: in the project there is no main thing - national focused ideas for domestic astronautics. About it the correspondent talks to the developer of projects of expedition to Mars and the Moon, the leading designer on the piloted is rocket - to space complexes for disembarkation to the Moon and “ Energy - the Snow-storm “ Vladimir Bugrovym.
: Vladimir Evgrafovich and what you think?
Vladimir Bugrov : If it is absolutely short: strategy of development of astronautics - piloted flights is not equitable to national interests of Russia.
RG : Why does not answer?
Hillocks : What actually it is offered? By expenses to count up which it is impossible, to create on the Moon industrial base for manufacturing of hundreds millions tons metallokonstruktsy and their deducing into high orbits. And for what? It appears, that in the next century to rescue a world civilisation from possible, but not proved ecological and power accidents. Strategy in a root contradicts the documents confirmed earlier which nobody cancelled, defined the perspective purpose of the Russian astronautics expedition to Mars.
RG : So, can, the most important task and is not necessary? Perhaps it is necessary to move simply systematically forward?
Hillocks : This most important task half a century ago Queens, Mishin, Tihonravov, Keldysh successfully solved. And where to move forward? Look, as we are designated “ boundaries “. 2015 - preservation of leading positions of Russia in means of deducing and piloted flights. But how to keep positions if the American ship " flies in a piloted mode; Dragon “?
2020 - preparation for flight tests of the heavy piloted ship of new generation. How much heavy, where and what for it should fly? It is not told. But it is planned to finish by this time operation MKS and to drown it.
2030 - is called “ a break boundary “ - realisation of demonstration flight of the Moon with the subsequent disembarkation of cosmonauts to its surface and their returning to the Earth. Here “ have broken “! Have executed, at last, the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Sovmina of 1964 in 70 years after Americans. As to whom we to these will show? On how many years Russia has lagged behind America?.
RG : And here after 2030 it is registered: break development - a termless boundary …
Hillocks : Therefore also termless that before our century termination electrojet tows for the sake of which this is built, to put it mildly, nonsense, hardly will throw the whole industrial region of Russia on the Moon. “ strategists “ from leading research institute have forgotten that the author of idea - dear academician possessed the big sense of humour: he has fairly written that this improbable forecast of development of astronautics for second half XXI centuries is based not on a science, and on a political fantasy.
RG : However, in strategy by the third priority appears and piloted flight to Mars. However, as a part of the international cooperation.
hillocks : All is put upside down. In 1974 the real base to realisation by our country of expedition of the person to Mars in 70 - 80 - h has been created years, but today we do not undertake the Martian project. We will wait: perhaps, we take the international cooperation. However easily we undertake that obviously it is impossible to make alone - to create the big industrial city on the Moon.
RG : Saying, what strategy contradicts earlier accepted documents, you mean the federal program on 2006 - 2015 where there was just Mars?
Hillocks : Certainly. Three years ago has passed big meetings at Presidential Administration of the Russian Federation. Also it has been written accurately down: “ to Develop the special federal target program “ Realization of Martian expedition “ on 2009 - 2022 … “ That is the strategic target of Russia - expedition to Mars has clearly been confirmed. The president has allocated 17 billion roubles for working out of the nuclear engine. From them 7,245 billion to Rosatom - on creation reaktornoj installations, 3,955 billion to Center of a name of Keldysh - on creation of nuclear power impellent installation …
However, at once there was a question: why financing of Rosatom and the Center of a name of Keldysh, when there is no neither the chief designer, nor the expedition project begins. At last, who has misled what to fly to Mars it is necessary only on electrojet engines? they are not necessary.
RG : Them in 1962 have rejected Queens and Keldysh?
Hillocks : Truly. They have confirmed the project of a Martian complex with liquid rocket engines for dispersal to Mars from a circumterraneous orbit. Glushko, which else in 1960 have charged to develop the electrojet engine (ERD), in 27 years, without having solved a problem, admitted: “ I thought much and have come to a conclusion that plasma engines for piloted flights are not necessary - all of us can solve problems on chemistry “.
RG : So why expedition to Mars all - taki is put in dependence on creation ERD?
Hillocks : I Will tell so. Too many experts are occupied in these workings out. Even there was a book with attempt, and rather incorrect, to prove superiority ERD in front of liquid engines. We will tell, the weight report of a complex is resulted: 366 tons in a circumterraneous orbit, however without landing to Mars. That is flight of Mars. In 1969 Keldysh twice officially offered to execute in 1975 piloted flight of Mars on two carriers N1 with ZHRD. But it is 190 tons, instead of 366! Mstislav Vsevolodovich was able to consider. anyway, a prize, equally, as well as loss - almost twice!
RG : It seems, authors of the book have agreed Even before, what to expedition to Mars Sergey Korolev at all had no relation?
Hillocks : Yes. Also that the project with liquid rocket engines too was not. Also that in 1960 certain “ the confidential chief designer “ has developed the project “ MEK “ - a Martian forwarding complex with plasma engines which is described in the book … And the editor-in-chief - the academician has confirmed this nonsense.
RG : What for and to whom these myths are necessary?
Hillocks : All is simple. Time was not the project with ZHRD, means there is nothing to compare. Means, other project out of competition - you give financing! Well, and has thought up a myth known employee RKK “ Energy “ and my old friend whom, I will notice, perfectly knew that I in 1960 - 1964 was engaged in the Martian project. In America it was presented by the chief designer Soviet the Martian project. And number has passed! Later the director from Canada, filming about development of Mars, having arrived to me, long could not understand: and here Queens if in America it is known, what the Soviet project was developed by my friend?
RG : you after that communicated with the friend?
Hillocks : Communicated. Having looked at my article about Mars, he first like as was indignant: you after all know that Queens in expedition were not engaged. But when I have reminded it about the writing-book with project draught copies (he it saw), it has said in low tones: “ Excuse, I am not right “.
Under versions of some dear academicians it turns out that Queens which all life dreamt of interplanetary flight, at first has achieved two major governmental orders in 1959 and the 1960 which have charged to it to carry out the interplanetary project. And has then thrown this project and as the boy has pursued for a background Brown on the Moon. Cinema, and only! I am convinced: Deliberately deforming the true Soviet priorities some simply prevent to make today to the government the weighed decision on prospects of the Russian astronautics.
RG : But why in Strategy have changed a problem - instead of Mars for the Moon?
Hillocks : I Can assume only. There are conclusive figures which demonstrate an inconsistency an electrojet myth and superiority ZHRD. But “ collective reason “ has found - taki an exit: time for Mars are not necessary electrojet engines Mars is not necessary also. A problem have put more widely: to prove that without nuclear ERD the world civilisation will be lost. A pier, it is necessary to rescue mankind from catastrophic warming. And for this purpose it is necessary to make “ shtorku “ in diameter 1800 km. and for its manufacturing it is necessary to create powerful industrial base on the Moon. And here not to do without electrojet tows … Here a starting point!
And it is not important that the group of experts on ERD has produced in evidence Russian Space Department: the offered engine essentially cannot be created. Cost of a lunar city a minimum in 300 thousand times above expedition cost to Mars. Forward on lunar base?!
RG : Also what to do? to alter strategy?
Hillocks : It is useless. Too a considerable quantity of the qualified experts in TSNIImash, in the Center of a name of Keldysh, in RKK “ Energy “ and in other organisations are under oppression of the scientific works and the inventions devoted to the electrojet ships and tows, lunar settlements, transmission of energy from space to the Earth. It is simply difficult to them to refuse them.
RG : But it is clear. Here you, as the leading designer, have devoted ten years to a lunar complex and fourteen - to a complex “ Energy - the Snow-storm “. It was easy to you to leave them?
Hillocks : very hard. But there has come the moment when I have understood: everything, further deadlock. The same experts do not want to leave the works not finished. Probably, it is necessary to thank developers of strategy for the big done work. And - to replace a command. It is necessary to return to the scheme of forward planning which has provided success at the Queen, but has not been realised up to the end as he offered.
In schemes of development of a space which I drew under the commission the Queen, space activity separated from the astronautics interplanetary flight was which purpose. Space activity of Queens aspired to transfer to other organisations.
RG : By a principle: it is impossible objat immense?
Hillocks :. But leading research institute instead of this direction to pick up and develop, has neglected it. Both directions also have failed. The official who is able to divide money cannot collect the program of development of astronautics. It needs to be designed, and make it can and the chief designer should only. Therefore it is necessary to transfer the decision of all questions on piloted astronautics, including working out of the perspective program of its development, in conducting RKK “ Energy “. As unique organisation in the country on piloted flights.
It is necessary to form on its basis scientifically - production association interplanetary and piloted programs - NPOMP. It can include OKB a name of Lavochkina, the Center of preparation of cosmonauts and Institute mediko - biological problems. With the main task - working out it is rocket - a space complex for expedition realisation to Mars. Without separating it from creation of interplanetary and lunar automatic devices on which expedition stages should be fulfilled. To charge also planning of the further works on MKS in interests This interplanetary program.
Similar associations are expedient for forming on space activity, on working out rockets and engines, on the land equipment, on space instrument making, on creation and operation of the cosmodromes and others. Their activity should be carried out on the basis of technical projects parent organisations on astronautics and on space activity.
RG : you offer very serious things.
Hillocks : Yes. But not I have thought up them. On May, 27th, 1959 in a note to the government “ About development scientifically - research also it is skilled - design works on space development “ Keldysh and Queens have proved necessity of creation central scientifically - the research organisation - Institute of interplanetary researches, on the basis of involved in works in this area of aviation KB and factory. But it has not been made. Aviation KB have transferred, but not the Queen, and Chelomeju!
Mars was the purpose the Queen and Keldysh. If we accept it, and it is necessary to change, as they offered. Without thinking about NASA. But in ours not simple conditions it is impossible to do it hasty. Therefore I would suggest vitse - a premiere to sign the simple document which will break nothing, however all sorientiruet in the necessary direction and will push to the practical beginning of works. Sometimes the big affairs begin with a simple paper.
RG : you, as far as I know, in due time under the commission the Queen in 1962 - m to year were engaged working out of similar documents of development of a space?
Hillocks : Yes. I had to be engaged in preparation of plans of expedition to Mars, and after general schedules of creation complex Í1 - Ë3 for expedition on the Moon and complex creations “ Energy - the Snow-storm “.
RG : interesting, preparation methods then differed from the modern?
Hillocks : Essentially. In Soviet period strategy of development of rocket and space technics during the early periods was defined by the governmental orders initiated by chief designers - Sergey Korolevym, Vladimir Chelomeeem, Michael Jangelem, with participation of the Ministry of Defence and Academy of Sciences.
Prepared with participation the Queen of the decision 13. 05. 46., 13. 02. 53., 10. 12. 59., 23. 06. 60. Have allowed it to create well-known “ the seven “ R - 7, the ships “ the East “ and “ the Union “ to develop the project of expedition of the person to Mars, the project heavy Rockets N1 for interplanetary flights and the heavy interplanetary ship, the USSR confirmed by president AN Mstislavom Keldysh which realisation after the Queen was carried out by Mishin. Unfortunately from the beginning 60 - h years the situation has changed.
RG : Why?
Hillocks : the Role “ the commander-in-chief “ on formation and a substantiation long-term scientifically - the technical policy on creation it is rocket - the space technics have assigned on TSNIImash (scientific research institute - 88) - leading research institute Minobshchemasha.
RG : And what in it was bad?
Hillocks : Basically, anything. But the institute proved necessity of performance of the instructions initiated to please to someone`s personal ambitions more often, and it torpedoed our interplanetary program.
RG : For example?
Hillocks : In 1962 To year working out of heavy missiles has been charged, except the Queen (in 1960), JAngelju and Chelomeju Though for fighting complexes developed by them they are not necessary. In 1964 have made the decision on a pursuit of Americans on the Moon from - for ambitions of Chelomeja for which Khruschev`s son worked, to escape in leaders. Though Queens planned flights for the Moon for working off of the Martian ship. In 1970 the ambition of group led by Chertokom   has been satisfied; on creation of primitive orbiting stations (DOS) though have already been developed fundamental stations. In 1974 the institute actually authorised destruction of the Soviet interplanetary program. Also has not prevented barbarous to destruction of complex Í1 - Ë3, collected for pilotless disembarkation to the Moon. 1976 the decision on creation of ours " is accepted; the Snow-storm “ after unprofitable and unnecessary American “ the Shuttle “. And our participation in MKS as experts are frank, was defined by their interest in the international cooperation.
that expert RG offers:
RG : What you particularly offer?
Hillocks : to Accept the document, in which:
1. to Define a national problem of Russia piloted expedition on a planet Mars. To define an immediate task of the Russian astronautics realisation of piloted annual flight on a heliocentric orbit out of terrestrial gravitation on a prototype of the interplanetary ship. To define the customer of the program the Government of the Russian Federation.
2. to Define RKK “ Energy “ parent organisation on expedition realisation to Mars and to piloted space flights.
3. to Appoint the chief designer of the Heavy Martian complex TMK - directors of the program of expedition to Mars, the separate governmental order of the Russian Federation after necessary consultations.
4. to Chief designer TMK till the end of 2012:
4. 1. To develop preliminary shape TMK and its block diagramme, taking for a basis the project developed Korolevym and confirmed by Keldysh in 1962.
4. 2. To develop strategy of development of the Russian astronautics stage by stage:
- 2014 - working out of project TMK for stages;
- 2014 - 218 - manufacturing, independent working off of components;
- 2018 - 2020 - land working off on TMK - N;
- 2020 - 2022 - letno - design tests for OISZ TMK - Z;
- 2022 - 2024 - flight on okololunnuju an orbit on TMK - L;
- 2023 - 2025 - flight round the Sun on TMK - With; -
- 2024 - 2026 - working off of landing of the Martian ship on the Moon;
- 2025 - 2030 - expedition realisation to Mars on TMK - E
4. 3. To develop offers on creation “ NPO Interplanetary, piloted programs “ and to attraction of the enterprises and the organisations to works on creation TMK, its updatings and their components.
5. to Russian Space Department to prepare offers on change of structure of branch, taking into account requirements of the present document.
6. To offer Russian Space Department and Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation to recommend to jurisdictional enterprises to stop working out of the programs, piloted flights on the Moon, as not equitable to national interests of Russia.