The order of Federal agency of a forestry from January, 10th, 2012 N 1 Moscow “ About the statement of Rules lesorazvedenija “
It is registered in Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on March, 22nd, 2012
Registration N 23568
According to article 63 of the Wood code of the Russian Federation (Meeting of the legislation of the Russian Federation, 2006, N 50, item 5278; 2008, N 20, item 2251; N 30 (p.1), item 3597, item 3599; N 30 (ch. 2), item 3616; N 52 (p.1), item 6236; 2009, N 11, item 1261; N 29, item 3601; N 30, item 3735; N 52 (p.1), item 6441; 2010, N 30, item 3998; 2011, N 1, item 54; N 25, item 3530; N 27, item 3880; N 29, item 4291; N 30 (p.1), item 4590) I order :
to confirm applied Rules lesorazvedenija.
the Head V.Maslyakov
the Comment red.: The order is published in “ the Bulletin of statutory acts of federal enforcement authorities “ N 21, 21. 05. 2012.
I. General provisions
1. The present Rules lesorazvedenija (further - Rules) are developed according to item 63 of the Wood code of the Russian Federation (Meeting of the legislation of the Russian Federation, 2006, N 50, item 5278; 2008, N 20, item 2251; N 30 (p.1), item 3597, item 3599; N 30 (ch. 2), item 3616; N 52 (p.1), item 6236; 2009, N 11, item 1261; N 29, item 3601; N 30, item 3735; N 52 (p.1), item 6441; 2010, N 30, item 3998; 2011, N 1, item 54; N 25, item 3530; N 27, item 3880; N 29, item 4291; N 30 (p.1), the item 4590) (further - the Wood code of the Russian Federation).
2. Lesorazvedenie it is carried out on the earths of wood fund and the earths of other categories on which woods, for the purpose of prevention of water, wind and other erosion of soils, creation of protective woods and other purposes connected with increase of potential of woods earlier did not grow.
to lesorazvedeniju concern: oblesenie not the wood earths as a part of the earths of wood fund (the drained bogs, rekultivirovannye the earths, the earths which have left from - under agricultural usings, ravines and others), creation of protective wood plantings on the agricultural purpose earths, the earths of the industry, transport and on the earths of other categories, creation of wood plantings at rekultivatsii the earths broken by industrial activity, and also wood plantings in sanatorno - resort zones and on other objects.
3. Lesorazvedenie it is carried out according to objects in view, lesorastitelnymi properties of soils of the ground areas, lesovodstvenno - with biological features wood and kustarnikovyh breeds and should provide:
protection of the earths and objects against adverse factors; increase lesistosti territories and improvement of conditions of environment.
4. Lesorazvedenie it is carried out by creation of artificial wood plantings by methods of landing of saplings, sejantsev, shanks or crops of seeds.
5. Principal views of the wood plantings created with a view of lesorazvedenija on arable lands, are field-protecting and stokoregulirujushchie wood strips.
on pastures protection of animals against adverse environmental conditions are created lesomeliorativnye plantings for improvement of a microclimate, increase of efficiency of pastures.
Wood plantings on strips of tap automobile and the railways, and also in their security zones are created for protection of roads against drift by snow and sand, prevention of receipt of heavy metals in adjoining agricultural grounds.
Lesorazvedenie on the earths which are subject rekultivatsii, it is carried out for the purpose of biological rekultivatsii these earths by creation of wood plantings after carrying out of a technical stage rekultivatsii (a lay-out, drawing of a fertile layer of earth, terrasirovanie slopes of sailings and others).
In water security zones and coastal protective strips of water objects lesorazvedenie it is carried out for the purpose of their protection against destruction of coast, a contamination, zailenija and exhaustions of water resources by creation beregoukrepitelnyh and other wood plantings.
On the earths of settlements lesorazvedenie it is carried out with a view of improvement of environment by creation of the wood plantings steady against recreational loadings, influence of industrial emissions and to other adverse factors.
6. Methods and technologies of performance of works on lesorazvedeniju are defined by projects lesorazvedenija. The project lesorazvedenija should contain concrete criteria of an estimation of a status of the created objects lesorazvedenija for a recognition of works on lesorazvedeniju finished (age lesomeliorativnyh plantings, average height of trees, an indicator of a density of crones, quantity of viable trees and bushes on unit of the area and others).
II. Creation and cultivation of wood plantings
7. Process of creation and cultivation of wood plantings with a view of lesorazvedenija includes:
Position fix and the areas of the ground areas intended for lesorazvedenija;
preliminary preparation of the ground area for the subsequent performance of works on creation of wood plantings;
definition of optimum structure wood and kustarnikovyh breeds in created wood plantings, placings and quantities of landing or sowing places;
landing or crops wood and kustarnikovyh plants;
care of the landed plants or their shoots (at crops).
8. Position fix and the areas of the ground areas intended for lesorazvedenija, is carried out in the course of preparation of wood plans of subjects of the Russian Federation, lesohozjajstvennyh regulations of forest areas (forest parks), projects of development of woods on the basis of the data lesoustrojstva, land management, documents of the territorial planning, special inspections and other sources.
9. Preliminary preparation of the ground area for the subsequent performance of works on creation of wood plantings includes:
ground area inspection;
marks of the future numbers of wood plantings, landing or sowing platforms, a designation of places with the limited suitability for technics movement;
alignment of a surface of the ground area, land improvement of its territory, the device of terraces on slopes;
preliminary struggle against harmful soil insects; other actions.
At ground area inspection its status and suitability for cultivation wood and kustarnikovyh breeds is defined (studying and the soil analysis), availability to work of corresponding technics, population of soil harmful for wood is if necessary spent and kustarnikovoj vegetation organisms, specify type lesorastitelnyh conditions and the way of creation of wood plantings is defined.
10. The way of processing of soil gets out depending on is soil - hydrological conditions of the ground area, a way of its preparation and the accepted structure of tree species in created wood planting taking into account a relief, an exposition and a steepness of slopes, water penetration gruntov, degrees of rockiness of soil, the sizes and availability of the ground area, danger of occurrence and development of erosive processes.
Soil processing is carried out on all ground area (continuous processing) or on its part (partial processing) mechanical, chemical or manual in the ways.
continuous machining of soil is spent on the sites which do not have in all territory obstacles for work of tools, by ploughing of all area.
partial machining of soil is carried out by strip ploughing, a mineralization (removal derniny) or soil loosening on strips or platforms, devices of furrows or ditches, educations of microincreases, preparations of poles.
chemical processing of soil by herbicides and arboritsidami is supposed on occasion with observance established by the legislation of the Russian Federation of requirements.
Without preliminary processing of soil creation of wood plantings and wood strips by landing krupnomernogo a landing material of trees and bushes on pure arable lands from weeds, sand (except mobile), rekultivirovannyh and other earths which are not growing with weed vegetation and not subject excessive issusheniju can be carried out.
11. Wood plantings can be created from one main (basic) wood or kustarnikovoj breeds or from several main and accompanying tree species and bushes.
the main wood breed gets out from local lesoobrazujushchih breeds, and in the presence of positive experience - from introdutsirovannyh. She should respond the purposes lesorazvedenija and correspond lesorastitelnym to features of the ground area.
the choice of accompanying tree species and bushes is carried out taking into account their influence on the main breed.
Accompanying tree species and bushes are entered into wood plantings basically by alternation of their numbers with numbers of the main breed.
initial density of created wood plantings (quantity of landing or sowing places on area unit) and placing of landing or sowing places should provide in process of growth of trees and bushes formation of the wood plantings steady against adverse factors, the most durable and responding the purposes lesorazvedenija.
Initial density of creation of wood plantings and placing of landing (sowing) places are established depending on a kind of the main wood breed, lesorastitelnoj zones, type lesorastitelnyh conditions, a method and the purposes lesorazvedenija, type of a used landing material.
12. At lesorazvedenii by creation of wood plantings of coniferous tree species by files on the considerable areas (more than 20 hectares) with a view of maintenance of fire security of created wood plantings are necessary at placing of sowing campaigns or seats to provide fire-prevention ruptures, the device fire-prevention mineralizovannyh strips, the device of side scenes from deciduous breeds and other measures according to the wood legislation of the Russian Federation.
13. The basic method of creation of wood plantings at lesorazvedenii is landing which can be carried out by various kinds of a landing material. Landing is made on the soils subject to water and wind erosion, on is superfluous the humidified soils and on sites with fast zarastaniem seats weed vegetation, and also in areas with insufficient humidifying. Exclusively landing creates wood plantings with application of a selection landing material.
For landing are used sejantsy and saplings, and also shanks.
the landing material before landing can be processed by various substances for its protection from podsushivanija and damages by harmful organisms, and also for increase prizhivaemosti and growth accelerations.
creation of wood plantings by crops method is supposed on sites with a poor development of a grassy pall. Wood crops are possible in a taiga zone on sites with dry sandy and stony soils, in forest-steppe and steppe zones of the European part of Russia, in a zone of the mountain North Caucasus - at lesorazvedenii by creation of wood plantings of an oak, a chestnut, a nut and others wood and kustarnikovyh the breeds having large seeds. Crops are applied also in a zone of semi-deserts at lesorazvedenii with a view of fastening of mobile sand.
at crops use of not zoned seeds of wood plants is not supposed.
Landing and crops wood and kustarnikovyh breeds can be combined with entering into soil of fertilizers, protection frames of plants from harmful organisms, and also with crops of grasses for their subsequent use on fertilizer, for preparation of hay and in other purposes.
14. Care of the landed wood plants or their shoots (at crops) is carried out agrotechnical (agrotechnical leaving) and lesovodstvennymi in the ways (lesovodstvennyj leaving).
Agrotechnical leaving is carried out, as a rule, to smykanija crones of trees and bushes and is provided with a way:
manual opravki plants from a blockage a grass and soil, drift by sand, washout and land retirement, squeezing by a frost;
loosening of soil with simultaneous mechanical destruction of grassy vegetation;
destructions of grassy vegetation by chemical means;
Additions (planting of trees and bushes instead of the victims, not taken roots plants), top dressing by mineral, organic fertilizers and watering (are planned and spent as special actions).
In a wood zone agrotechnical leaving is spent basically for the purpose of destruction of grassy and undesirable wood vegetation.
in forest-steppe, steppe zones and in a zone of semi-deserts agrotechnical leaving is directed mainly on accumulation and preservation of a soil moisture. In very droughty conditions it can proceed and after smykanija crones of trees and bushes.
Ways, quantity of receptions of leaving, terms of their repeatability and duration of carrying out (number of years after landing or crops) agrotechnical uhodov are established depending on type lesorastitelnyh conditions, biological features cultivated wood and kustarnikovyh breeds, a way of processing of soil, a method of creation of wood plantings, the sizes of an applied landing material and other features.
application of chemical means for struggle against weed grassy and wood vegetation is supposed according to the legislation of the Russian Federation on safe handling of pesticides and agrochemicals.
mineral and organic fertilizers are brought, as a rule, on poor (sandy, washed off, drained, rekultivirovannyh and etc.) Soils where possibility of growth of grassy vegetation is excluded.
wood plantings with prizhivaemostju (quantity of live plants or shoots in percentage of quantity landed or vysejannyh) from 25 to 85 percent are subject to addition. Wood plantings in which live plants or shoots take place non-uniformly on the site area, are supplemented at any prizhivaemosti.
At addition the age of a landing material should correspond to age of cultivated plants.
lesovodstvennyj care of the wood plantings created with a view of lesorazvedenija, consists in periodic cabin of the undesirable wood vegetation, weakened, victims and a part of healthy trees and bushes for maintenance of the best conditions of growth left, structure formations of the plantings, providing performance of useful functions by them according to the purposes lesorazvedenija.
leaving is spent by Lesovodstvennyj to smykanija crones of cultivated trees and bushes.
after smykanija crones of trees and bushes leaving is carried out Behind wood plantings according to the wood legislation of the Russian Federation.
15. Works on creation of objects lesorazvedenija are considered finished if the created wood plantings correspond to the criteria established by the project lesorazvedenija.