Wood companionsWith growth of activity of the timber industry companies there was a severe need in modern system of tracking a condition of wood grounds. With the initiative to use a method of space monitoring of woods in 2004 the Federal agency of a forestry (Rosleshoz) has acted. For today it is actively used for detection of illegal cabins of wood, its efficiency is high enough in other countries, but in Russia this way of struggle against illegal cabins has not justified till now itself.
the Earth in a window
All over the world the technology of space monitoring of the earth is widely applied in the most various areas of agriculture and the industry. By means of system of satellite tracking control over productivity is carried out, for example. On pictures from space define a site of some minerals which ground reconnaissance costs more expensively and occupies more time. From space pictures are widely applied to the decision of nature protection problems, for example for revealing of scales of pollution in cases razlitija oil and other ecological disasters. In the wood industry on the basis of pictures from space monitoring of wood resources is carried out. But the method of space tracking brings the greatest advantage in the course of revealing of the facts of illegal cabin of woods.
actually, the name “ space monitoring “ unites some investigation phases, first of which - shooting from space. For needs of Rosleshoza the agency " is engaged in reception and distribution of the space information; Skaneks “.
For specification of the data received from the companion, other method - large-scale air photography (KAFS, the second stage of monitoring) is applied. It is carried out by the organisations at which order there is a park of planes and the special film-making equipment. Actually, KAFS up to occurrence of space monitoring was unique way of research of wood resources (short of land monitoring, that is detour on foot wood grounds workers of timber enterprises).
on Efficiency of technology of air photography have commented in Joint-Stock Company “ aerofotoinform “ (the organisation realising the order of Rosleshoza): KAFS - a method exact, but they cannot capture all wood resources of the country. Therefore it is used mainly for acknowledgement and local detailed elaboration of the data of the companion.
on a question, pictures from space if there is fulfilled technology KAFS, Nikolay Babashkin, the assistant to the general director of Joint-Stock Company " what for are necessary; aerofotoinform “ has explained that in Russia it is forbidden to civil services to use pictures the permission more than 2 m. For the inquiry: one shot of companion IRS - P6 with the permission of 55 m allows to reveal sites of cabins in the size more than 5 hectares. Smaller cuttings down on it simply are not visible.
It turns out that without air photography it is impossible to manage too: for needs of the wood industry the satellite data collected with periodicity once in some months is used. And KAFS it can be carried out as required. Including efforts of Ministry for Protection of the Environment and Natural Resources in which aeromonitoring questions is engaged in State Unitary Enterprise “ avialesohrana “.
Difficulties of transition
Technology of complex research of wood resources (space monitoring, KAFS and land monitoring) in Europe is applied everywhere. Here it is much less than woods, than in Russia, but for wood monitoring the data of all companions, suitable for shooting of a surface of the earth from space is used.
in our country to space monitoring approach not so on a substantial scale. As have told in ITTS “ Skaneks “ Only for performance of one of orders of Rosleshoza for territory shooting it was necessary to involve resources of five satellite operators in 100 million in hectare from France, India, the USA, Canada and Israel. The Russian companions for these purposes practically are not used, as they do not give pictures of the necessary permission and quality.
Besides, environmental conditions of Russia create specific difficulties for operators of satellite shooting. The matter is that in our country the basic volume of wood grounds is concentrated in the north where strong overcast is often observed. That the wood picture has turned out qualitative, it should be made in the daytime and in a fair weather.
one more especially Russian complexity of the complex approach to monitoring consists that between workers of forestry and the organisations which are carrying out flight and photographing of territories lespromhozov, quite often there are friction. As have told in Joint-Stock Company “ aerofotoinform “ The history of this mutual hostility has begun in the Soviet years: economy - the infringers noticing in the sky over wood the plane, in an emergency order hastened to prolong permissions to deforestation. And when experts finished the analysis of results KAFS, cabins were considered already legal.
according to Rosleshoza, application of complex research is defensible, as infringers seldom steal in opened and try to show an ingenuity. Tenants of the ground areas happen the most frequent infringers. For example, the organisation leases at rather low price a ground with not quite ripe wood. But instead of the site cuts down next, with ripe wood. One more widespread infringement - when the tenant autocratically breaks border of the site and grasps additional hectares of wood on its edges.
Except direct cutting down by gross infringement it is considered destruction and damage podrosta and the wood cultures, insufficient clearing of places of cabins. Before occurrence of space monitoring it was especially difficult to supervise these infringements as the wood cabin occurs mainly in the winter when the snow cover complicates the pedestrian detour.
Despite existing difficulties in application of difficult technology, the Federal agency of a forestry is adjusted optimistically. Rosleshoz does not feel sorry for money for space monitoring, giving reason for expenses that in case of any infringement the federal property suffers and it is necessary to use any accessible means not to suppose plunders.
Thus, in 2005 the method of remote sounding had been conducted researches of 54 million in hectare in territory of seven subjects of the Russian Federation - in the Arkhangelsk and Irkutsk areas, by Khabarovsk, Seaside both Perm edges and Republic Komi. On pictures of average (23 and high (6 - 10) permissions came to light areas with the most intensive cabins. New pictures were combined with previous and the difference came to light. In a case when signs of illegal cabin were obvious, them confirmed with large-scale air photography.
the obtained data was checked on conformity to conditions of lease contracts. Infringers came to light. The data was documentary made out and transferred in Rosprirodnadzor who, in turn, addressed with the petition. So, in 2005 the damage in 7,5 mlrd rbl. In the first half of the year 2006 an amount of damage has been revealed estimated in 4,3 mlrd rbl.
In 2006 it has been investigated 101,2 million in hectare in territory of 18 subjects of the Russian Federation - the Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Leningrad, Kostroma, Tver, Kirov, Sverdlovsk, Irkutsk, Tomsk, Perm, Chita and Amur areas, Republics Kareliyas, Komi, Buryatiya, Krasnoyarsk, Khabarovsk and seaside edges.
in space researches only during the current year it has been enclosed 50 million rbl., but the number of infringements has decreased slightly. And it despite of psychological effect which as consider in Rosleshoze, renders the fact of satellite supervision on infringers. Federal agency, putting budgetary funds in monitoring, becomes vulnerable for criticism. Rosleshoz accuse of attempt to replace work of land services of tracking as the technology demanding larger budgetary expenses. Thus monitoring does not prevent, and only reveals already happened infringements when it is impossible to correct their consequences.
However as vice-president ITTS " marks; Skaneks “ Olga Gershenzon, the initiative of Rosleshoza is “ the big break “. Probably, in due course experience of the western countries where space monitoring serves the most various directions of economy and a science will be possible to adopt Russia. In many countries obligatory annual space shooting of territories is spent. The decoded pictures take place on the closed sites on the Internet with the resolved access for experts, including lesopolzovatelej and lesovladeltsev. If to adjust regular shooting, there will be a possibility to create information bases so, the data it will be possible to compare, reveal laws and to do forecasts. For Russia practice of Sweden and Finland where process of inventory of woods is supported by target state financing is most indicative.
Initial experience of application of space monitoring has shown, in what direction it is necessary to develop technology. In - the first, from - for difficult weather conditions in the majority of areas of the European North, the Far East and Siberia the mode of continuous monitoring by means of several companions is optimum. In - the second, in areas large-scale lesopolzovanija shooting with especially high permission, that is to semimeter should be spent. In - the third, it is necessary to simplify “ paper “ relations of Timber enterprise with Rosprirodnadzorom that legal registration of the data about infringements and document transfer process in court occupied less time. As satellite pictures the same as also pictures from the plane, are accepted in court as the official document.
the Electronic account has frozen
For suppression of illegal export of wood last year in the Irkutsk region experiment on introduction of electronic system of the account of wood has been made. The experimental system has been started on November, 1st, 2005 in a zone of responsibility of Irkutsk customs. It was supposed that lesoeksportery will mark each taken out log a plastic label about a stroke - a code, in which “ it is sewn up “ unique number of a log and its characteristics stored in a database. However a month later at meeting of customs officers in Irkutsk it was found out that at lesoeksporterov there were problems with acquisition of labels.
It has appeared, woods it is taken out so much that labels simply do not suffice. In the company “ the Raven “ engaged delivery of labels, have explained that exporters receive labels during one - two months from the moment of their payment. It turns out that wood already prepared for sending should still couple of months where - that to be stored that is completely not favourable to lumberers.
in this connection at meeting the decision temporarily to allow exporters was accepted to ship wood with declaring application provided that the companies have got markirovochnoe the equipment and have already ordered labels. In half a year after that, summer of 2006, summing up experiment, Irkutsk customs officers have come to a conclusion that it has appeared unsuccessful as besides problems with insufficient quantity of labels there was a problem with their application. The matter is that at temperature more low - 18°Ñ they simply burst and broke. As a result the system of electronic marks has been cancelled.
If to adjust regular space shooting, there will be a possibility to create information bases so, the data it will be possible to compare, reveal laws and to do forecasts
Large-scale air photography which conduct from the plane, concedes by efficiency to space monitoring