The short description of an existing condition of the market of gas and the subsequent stages of its transformation to the high-grade competitive market of gasI. Economic relations in the existing market
the Developed Russian market of gas is characterised by not enough developed market infrastructure and high degree of state regulation.
the leading position in the gas market occupies “ Gazprom “ imushchestvenno - which industrial complex forms ESG (uniform system of gas supply.-). This position is caused by that about 90 % of volumes of gas production in Russia carries out this joint-stock company.
in spite of the fact that the independent organisations own approximately 30 % of the gas deposits of licences given out for processing, their share in total volumes of extraction of the Russian gas makes a little more than 10 %.
In the local regional markets independent manufacturers - " function; Norilskgazprom “ “ JAkutgazprom “ And “ Rosneft - Sahalinmorneftegaz “ which occupy a monopoly position in these markets.
the services rendered “ Gazprom “ on gas transportation on the main gas pipelines which are a basis of gas-transport networks ESG, are carried to natural - to exclusive kinds of activity.
the sector gazoraspredelenija includes more than 300 enterprises various organizational - legal forms the majority from which are joint-stock companies. Rendering of services in gas transportation on gazoraspredelitelnym to networks of pipelines also is carried to natural - to exclusive kinds of activity.
at the developed structure of the market with a view of protection of consumers against exclusive rise in prices the basic volumes of gas are realised on the adjustable state to wholesale prices. Besides wholesale prices the state regulates tariffs: on services in gas transportation in the main networks of the pipelines, rendered to the independent organisations; On services in gas transportation in distributive networks of pipelines. The size of a payment for snabzhenchesko - the marketing services rendered to end users is regulated also.
independent manufacturers of gas have the right to realise the gas at free contractual prices. In conditions when the basic part of gas is realised to end users at adjustable wholesale prices, possibilities to exercise this right at independent manufacturers are rather limited.
economic relations in the gas market between suppliers and buyers of gas, and also the organisations rendering to them corresponding service, including in gas transportation, are regulated by Rules of delivery of gas in the Russian Federation, confirmed by the governmental order of the Russian Federation from February, 5th, 1998 #162 according to which the buyer or the supplier of gas can be any legal body. The supplier and the buyer of gas have the right to use services gas-transport and gazoraspredelitelnoj the organisations for gas transportation on not discrimination basis. Mutual relations in the field of gas transportation are regulated by the confirmed governmental orders of the Russian Federation positions about providing of access of the independent organisations to gas-transport system “ Gazprom “ position about providing of access of the organisations to local gazoraspredelitelnym to networks.
for consideration of questions of use of systems of the main oil and gas pipelines the commission of the Government of the Russian Federation functions.
Reforming of the developed market of gas in the high-grade competitive market assumes first of all creation financially - economic conditions for development of independent manufacturers of gas at preservation ESG, a gradual decontrol of activity in potentially competitive spheres (extraction, sale), expansion of noncontrollable sector of the market of gas with free market prices at antimonopoly control and application of rules of behaviour of the participants functioning in this market.
II. The first stage of reforming of the market of gas
At this stage remains state regulation of wholesale prices for gas for end users, tariffs for services in gas transportation on the main networks of pipelines for the independent organisations, tariffs for services in gas transportation on distributive networks, and also payments for snabzhenchesko - marketing services.
the State, keeping adjustable sector of gas, solves creation questions financially - economic conditions for stabilisation the next three years of gas production by the basic manufacturer “ Gazprom “ stimulations of practical development of licences for working out of gas deposits which the independent organisations, and by that increases in a share of the gas delivered on the market by independent manufacturers own.
controlled prices (tariffs) are established proceeding from compensation of all well-founded expenses and maintenance of the expanded reproduction in gas branch. Conditions of self-financing of participants of adjustable sector of the market of gas that is a basis for the further development of gas branch, formation of economically well-founded base for liberalisation of the prices, and also a condition for rational use and economy of gas, introduction of power saving up technologies and the equipment are provided. The technique of formation of uniform adjustable tariffs for gas transportation on the main gas pipelines which will be applied at transition to contractual prices of gas and expansion of noncontrollable sector of the market of gas is developed.
for working off of market mechanisms of functioning of participants of the Russian market of gas and definition of market cost of the natural gas formed on the basis of supply and demand, at the first stage wholesale exchange trade in gas will be organised.
volumes of the gas realised at a stock exchange, are formed from:
- 5 - 15 % of volumes of the gas extracted “ Gazprom “ (by analogy to volumes of the electric power which will be realised at free contractual prices within the limits of reforming of the market of the electric power);
- the gas bought on import;
- gas of independent manufacturers.
In the conditions of a leading position of adjustable sector of gas the buyers having requirements and possibilities to get at market prices gas over the volumes of gas established by contracts of delivery and the state contracts will voluntary use services of exchange trade.
the price for gas for the consumers, wished to get gas at a stock exchange, will be formed by addition of exchange free contractual prices of gas and adjustable tariffs for services in gas transportation on the main gas pipelines and networks gazoraspredelitelnyh the organisations.
when the end user will buy gas at a stock exchange through intermediaries, the final price will be formed by addition of stock quotes of gas, adjustable tariffs for services in transportation of gas and an adjustable payment for snabzhenchesko - marketing services of suppliers of gas.
Besides exchange trade the noncontrollable sector of the market of gas will be formed at the expense of purchase of gas by consumers directly at independent manufacturers in the presence of free capacities on gas transportation. In this case market price for consumers will be defined proceeding from contractual price of the independent manufacturer and adjustable tariffs for services in gas transportation.
with a view of creation of conditions for the further decontrol of the market of gas and transition at the subsequent stages to regulation only tariffs for transportation of gas instead of wholesale prices for it, and also maintenance “ a transparency “ expenses on gas transportation at the first stage in Open Society structure “ Gazprom “ the specialised gas-transport company (STK) will be created, and existing transgases are transformed to operators of the main gas pipelines which are carrying out operation and repair of pipelines. Financial streams and expenses on gas-transport work will be separately reflected from other kinds of activity in the reporting of this company.
at the first stage besides existing positions about gas deliveries, about not discrimination access to gas-transport networks and other regulating statutory acts rules of work of noncontrollable sector of the Russian gas are developed and affirm.
III. The second stage of reforming of the market of gas
At the second stage extends noncontrollable sector of the market of gas and its development enters a liberalisation stage. Contractual prices are applied at gas realisation to all consumers, except the population and the organisations financed from budgets of all levels.
methods of antimonopoly control over activity of participants of noncontrollable sector of the market of gas and a rule of work of this sector are applied to protection of consumers.
Application of contractual prices of the gas, reflecting its real market cost, provides a competition of gas to alternative energy carriers, induces consumers to carry out introduction gazosberegajushchih technologies and the equipment.
simultaneously with introduction of contractual prices of gas and expansion of noncontrollable sector of the market of gas blanket tariffs regulated by the state for gas transportation on the main nine pipelines providing self-financing STK and other gas-transport organisations are installed. Regulation of tariffs for gas transportation on gazoraspredelitelnym to networks remains.
thus, regulation is carried out mainly in spheres of transportation of the gas, carried by the legislation to natural - to exclusive kinds of activity. At this stage with a view of a non-admission of an overflow of the capital in sphere of trading activity and its concentration mainly in industrial sphere payment regulation for snabzhenchesko - marketing services in the gas market remains.
in the gas market there are new participants in the form of the extracting companies formed with participation “ Gazprom “. New gas dobychnye the companies and independent manufacturers should provide the basic gain of deliveries of gas on the Russian market of gas and to become a basis for creation of the competitive environment.
“ Gazprom “ as well as at the previous stages, will provide deliveries of gas to adjustable sector of the market of gas (the population, budgetary consumers) at controlled prices (tariffs) and for extending noncontrollable sector at free contractual prices.
For maintenance of functioning of the liberalised market of gas it is created necessary standard - legal base, amendments are made to the current legislation, fixing principles, mechanisms and rules of functioning of the high-grade market of gas.
IV. The third stage of reforming of the market of gas
At this stage basically the market infrastructure of the Russian market of gas will be generated. The leading position on it will occupy noncontrollable sector. At controlled prices gas will be delivered only for population supply. Adjustable tariffs for services in gas transportation as naturally - an exclusive kind of activity remain.
in the liberalised market of gas participation of independent manufacturers of the gas, the new companies, including formed with participation " considerably extends; Gazprom “. At this stage as participants of the Russian market of gas in process of creation of corresponding transport capacities foreign suppliers of gas, first of all from the states CIS which will realise the export gas directly or through the structures authorised by them will be admitted.
resources of the gas delivered on noncontrollable sector of the market, including in sphere of exchange trade in gas, are formed at the expense of the gas extracted “ Gazprom “ the companies created with participation “ Gazprom “ independent manufacturers developing new gas deposit (the company “ Itera “ and others), the oil companies receiving gas as passing resources at oil recovery, and also the gas bought on import and delivered by directly foreign suppliers.