By 2020 the biofuel share on transport can make to 25 percent
Biofuel tries to force out traditional aviakerosene: is already from tens variants of products and plants from which receive a new kind plane “ gorjuchki “.
To business there is seaweed, cocoes, the Brazilian nuts, inedible plants a saffron milk cap of a sowing campaign and jatrofa (a wood bush with large oily seeds), not food animal fats... And one of these days news from Australia has come: airline Qantas has executed the first flight on the fuel, half consisting of the cleared vegetable oil.
While all “ biorefuellings “ not from the cheap. That that has been filled in in tanks of the Australian carrier - time in 4 more expensively aviakerosene. Cost of biofuel with addition of a saffron milk cap or jatrofy hardly is less. Anyway to overpay for tickets to passengers it was not necessary. Why? Pilots want to show that flights on biofuel differ nothing from the usual. And - draw attention to necessity of creation of the national industry of its manufacture.
According to experts, “ green fuel “ for 60 percent is purer some aviakerosene. Also that is important - characteristics and properties “ competitors “ practically do not differ. So, under “ biogorjuchku “ any constructive changes neither in planes, nor in engines are not necessary. It like as was convincingly proved also by test flights.
In a rating of aviation bioraw materials seaweed occupies, certainly, first place. It and is clear: for growth such valuable resources, as the earth or fresh water are not necessary to them. Besides sea seaweed can give approximately in 2 times of more bioethanol, than a sugar cane, and in 5 times more, than corn.
In leaders and a modest saffron milk cap. This grass concerns it is considered the near relation of ordinary cabbage. It is grown up on wheaten fields after harvesting. The saffron milk cap is used only for manufacture of cosmetics and for meal simply - naprosto is unsuitable.
Jatrofu grow up in Mexico. Experts are assured: in the future there will be more difficult variants of manufacture of the fuel, new kinds of plants and components. We will admit, offers sound even to create biofuel from millet. Like as this perennial plant gives big crops and the nitrogen and water minimum demands.
In Russia workings out on creation of aviation fuel from vegetative raw materials are conducted for a long time. But to tell that biofuel domestic “ pouring “ it is already created, early. We spetsy admit: all needs to be rechecked repeatedly still, and the received product to certificate. And technology of its manufacture while only laboratory, and so - expensive. Transition to industrial production demands both money, and time.
In a word, still two years ago the plane on biofuel was exotic, and flight hardly probable was not equated to an extreme. Now in new technologies on biofuel use on regular flights as equals are engaged both leading aviabuilders, and the largest carriers. And though the Russian airlines have not made still any similar flight, to avoid it hardly it will be possible: and oil stocks are not boundless, and the disturbing call in the form of European Union quotas forces.
the List of the airlines which have registered at biofuel, grows by leaps and bounds. Aviabuilders are developed also. So, European Airbus, American Boeing and Brazilian Embraer S. A. Have made decision to begin teamwork on advancement of use of liquid biofuel in aircraft.
However not all so is unequivocal. Just large German airline declared: it stops test flights on biofuel. Also it is not known, whether will renew. As it is told, it is necessary to come to the reasonable price on “ gorjuchku “. And without scale manufacture it is impossible. At the last as it is found out, is much and opponents.
opponents of biofuel consider as the Stumbling-block that commercial crops force out wheat and other grain. Moreover, in the Incorporated research centre of Eurocommission have counted up: increase in the agricultural areas under “ to the technician “ can lead to disappearance more than 80 % of kinds of live organisms. Inhabitants of the African savannas, the Brazilian woods and serrado are most vulnerable. Exist integrity threat biotsenozov and the countries of the former Soviet Union where also is provided to increase crops of cultures under biofuel.
According to the International institute of researches of a food policy to make demanded by the authorities of EU biofuel volume, it is necessary to sow in total 17 thousand square kilometres. Consider, half of territory of the Netherlands. And scientists from University of Minnesota have warned: redistribution of crops is capable by 2025 to increase number starving on a planet to 1,2 mlrd the person.
Some scientists consider that biofuel even is harmful to environment. Why? They have counted up a damage caused to atmosphere from gathering of plants from which bioethanol (a sugar cane, corn), their transportations and processing becomes. It turns out, that by 2050 to lower quantity of carbonic gas allocated in the world twice, it is necessary to replace 59 % of all woods with fields with plants for bioethanol manufacture. But it, according to researchers, will cause also increase in not processed emissions ÑÎ2 on 9 mlrd tons a year.
... And economists speak
By estimations Merrill Lynch, phase-out biotopliv will lead to a rise in prices for oil and gasoline for 15 %.
and according to Stendfordsky university, all over the world from an agricultural turn it is deduced 385 - 472 million hectares of the earth. Cultivation on these earths of raw materials for manufacture biotopliv will allow to increase a share biotopliv to 8 % in world power balance. On transport the share biotopliv can make from 10 % to 25 %.
experiment on manufacture " 2007 Has begun; green “ fuel for military planes.
2008 Boeing 747 British companies Virgin Atlantic were executed by the first flight on a mix of aviakerosene and fuel from oil of a coco and the Brazilian nuts babassu.
2011 Gulfstream G450 has made the first transatlantic flight from the North America to Europe with use of the fuel received from a saffron milk cap.
on February, 6th, 2012 company Etihad Airways Plane in the Near East has made for the first time flight on biofuel.
on March, 12th, 2012 In the USA have begun test of two warplanes F - 16 on possibility of use for biofuel flights.
On so much, according to experts, biofuel is purer some aviakerosene