The international awards
are handed over the Russian philosophers Grigory Pomerantsu and Zynaida Mirkinoj; the Norwegian Academy of the Literature and the Freedom of speech of Byorsterne Byornsona has awarded the prestigious award to the Russian philosopher Grigory Pomerantsu and poetess Zynaida Mirkinoj.
In a press - academy release it is told that “ award of the award to the Wild orange and Mirkinoj is a recognition of their long-term extensive creativity which promotes support of a freedom of speech and carrying out in life of idea of human advantage and spiritual growth in Russia “.
the Recognition is pleasant and more than deservedly. Really today, perhaps, there is no in Russia deeper and multilateral thinker, than Grigory Solomonovich Pomerants. Behind his back enormous life experience. Even before war it has ended well-known MIFLI - branch of the Russian literature. On front has left the volunteer. It was twice wounded. And in a year after the Victory has been excluded from VKP () “ For antiparty statements “. In three years - it is arrested on charge “ anti-Soviet activity “. On freedom left in a year of death of Stalin. Further: work as the teacher at rural school, the bibliographer in the academic library. In 70 - e years co-operates with emigrant editions. In Russia it is much printed from the end 80 - h years. Its main works: “ the Openness to a chasm. Meetings with Dostoevsky “ “ Lectures on philosophy “ “ Fire and ashes “ (together with Mirkinoj), “ the Exit from a trance “ “ Great religions of the world “ (in the co-authorship from Z.A.Mirkinoj), “ philosophy and cultural science Experiences “ “ Passionate odnostoronnost and impassivity of spirit “ “ Notes of a disgusting duckling “ “ One more life “.
Its last while under the account work “ Roads of spirit and history zigzags “ It is dated 2008 - year when to the author 90 years were executed. It is amazingly deep and wise book. From height of the age and from top of universal experience he writes:
“ For two and a half thousand years only the very few have felt that they cannot, as everything, to give in to superficial waves of aggression and sexual hunger. Only the few open in themselves the depth power “.
Having felt it once, Grigory Pomerants remains to it true on all bends and at all zigzags of history.
In 1961 Zynaida Mirkina has entered into his life the poet and the essayist, and further their everyday and creative roads have incorporated. In cooperation with each other they write books, an essay, participate in scientific discussions, hold the general seminars... Not casually the Norwegian Academy has awarded the honourable award of Byorsterne Byornsona for 2009 to both of them - to the brightest representatives of modern creative intelligency of Russia - to Grigory Pomerantsu and Zynaida Mirkinoj.
Awarding the award to the Russian writers, the academy has considered necessary to notice that “ the philosopher and culturologist Pomerants possesses profound knowledge European and east traditions “ that “ through all its creativity by a red thread there passes will to dialogue and vzaimouvazheniju, to original unity of people, irrespective of their religions and belief “.
In turn Zynaida Mirkina, having behind shoulders rich and original art experience - verses, fairy tales, literaturovedcheskie researches, - has opened in the heart of itself beauty of the complete world.
Both of them are authors of many teamwork, where as they speak, “ their work merges in one single whole “. And that the poet manages to transfer in verses, continues to be reflected in an essay and on the contrary.
the Celebration was preceded by a seminar “ whether the freedom of speech in Russia Is possible? “. As the curtain fell awarded have said speeches.
- I think, in destinies of Russian freedom of speech it is possible to understand much, following G.P.Fedotovym in the analysis of terms “ freedom “ and “ will “. A fan of values “ freedom “ leaves in republics of the ancient Mediterranean, conducts on agoru and on a forum. A word “ will “ conducts on open space where there are no restrictions, either walls, or fences more likely. pomkomvzvoda which I have remembered since 1941, never spoke: “ go out of doors “ “ leave on a court yard “. Only - “ leave on will “.
In the medieval West freedom conducted in a city enclosed with high walls more likely. Freedom of townspeople has been limited and provided. It was not thought not responsible for a city and accurately formulated law.
Anything similar was not in Russia. There were Russian free cities, but they knew nothing about legal traditions of antiquity. Disputes on the Novgorod veche dared fists. The stylistics of parliamentary speeches there and have not developed.
Having won Western Siberia, Ermak has presented to its Ivan the Terrible - probably, counting on known degree of an autonomy. However voevody built a fortress behind a fortress, and Cossacks left further on the east. The space ate social intensity, the central power was unwillingly reconciled with open border, but, eventually, Alexander II has closed America, has sold Alaska to the United States.
In the south of business went differently. There there was no boundless open space. The Cossack avant-guards faced advanced posts of Turkey and Iran or with the Big Caucasian ridge, and it seemed to continue is easier tradition of a distemper, to turn from the South on the North, to overturn the Moscow power and to create a kingdom of the Cossack will. Stepan Razin`s group was adjoined by many thousands crowds of the peasants who have been pressed down by the serfdom, but revolting crowds could not turn to the Cossack army in a flash. Defeat Yemelyan Pugacheva`s plan has come to an end also. This last echo of mutinies of the beginning of a XVII-th century of attempt of the All-Russia will have come to an end, and Cossacks became obedient boundary estate.
However at once the role of the fighter for freedom was picked up by nobility. The descendants of the landlords who have received will to go on the West and leisure to read Voltaire, Diderot, Russo, began to reflect and compare Russian usages to the European ideas. But there was one, whose heart was captured by burning shame from the power over kreshchenoj the property. He all alone - as authors of a samizdat - has written subsequently and has published “ Travel from Petersburg to Moscow “. There were no chances to mention this book a society of that time. But it has frightened Ekaterina.
Radishchev has been arrested, banished, at Ekaterina`s successor is returned, has once again felt the loneliness and has committed suicide. Circulation of its book have burnt. But the burnt books rise from ashes.
the new period has begun With this desperate step. The Russian literature has ceased to be court. It became national, and then and world, it became an embodiment of free spirit.
the Further history shares for three periods. In the first on a proscenium there are noblemen. Guards officers in December, 1825 try to dethrone Nikolay I and to make Russian monarchy constitutional. Pushkin, Gogol, Lermontov, Turgenev create Russian literary language and tradition of an art word. During the second period natives of families of priests, pupils of theological seminaries become a leading figure. They break off with religion and become propagandists of the left western currents. “ what to do? “ Chernyshevsky - the leaflet in the form of the novel. This book becomes the bible of several generations of Russian revolutionaries.
Tolstoy and Dostoevsky everyone on - to the, leave from this current deep into, to questions in which the literature is close to the Holy Writ. Russian zapadnichestvo and Europe become for them something small compared with Russian spiritual width. In this width the physical will of open spaces gets spiritual measurements. Dostoevsky - in the “ Winter notes about summer impressions “ forgotten by readers, throws the phrase which has amazed me:
“ Strongly developed person quite assured of the right to be by the person, not feeling for itself of any fear, cannot find to itself other use how to give itself all to everything, that also other steels the same full and happy persons. It is the nature law. To it pulls the normal person... “
I quote by heart that lives in me more than seventy years. And seventy years there is unresolved a question: and how others? When they will manage to accept and acquire an appeal to strongly developed person?
Contemporaries have not understood Dostoevsky. Its many ideas remained as shells on the old battle-field, blowing up through tens years. The history went the way. There was on a proscenium a third turn of the public layers which have been pulled out from traditions of autocracy by contact to Europe. The European ideas have reached factory workers and national minorities. On a XX-th century boundary these layers enter into liberation movement and give it the colouring. The Marxism becomes leading ideology. Rough events in cities have made populists - propagandists have not achieved what: has begun pugachevshchina without Pugacheva; muzhiks burnt down landowner manors, then them poroli and hung up. By 1907 all has settled, but in 1917 - m, after three years nevidanno heavy war, has flashed again. Bolsheviks with success used rabble-rousing elements against white, and then have cruelly suppressed it. By 1922 the power has concentrated in their hands. However no violence created gold toilets. The bony hand of hunger sufficed for a throat. Also it was necessary to release peasants from compulsory delivery of products and to give known will to the private initiative.
Experience Dan Sjaopina has shown that such policy opened possibility of effective development. But Buharin`s ideas have been in the homeland defective. Stalin, “ east cook loving hot dishes “ pulled to itself the roads covered with corpses. Historians will eternally argue that to it has helped to win the contenders much more surpassing it in working out of theoretical concepts and in art of a word. A support on the device? I think that not only. In it there was any demonic force subordinating assistants. He noticed people whom bewitched, and skilfully them used.
it is possible, that ohranka last years an imperial mode introduced in revolutionary parties of agents has affected also. Other of them were on - to the are talented. Also there is many indirect data (though any direct evidence) that Stalin after ekspropriatsii Tiflissky bank has avoided the imperial gallows the consent to a double role. So it or not, but it differed from Trotsky, Zinoveva, Kameneva, Buharin one tactical advantage: ideas for it meant nothing, it changed them as gloves. The total personal authority was its unique purpose, and he has achieved it.
After Stalin`s death remains not clearly, whether the intelligency as intelligency, peasantry - peasantry, the people - the people has remained. All has merged in weight of well operated semierudition. Spiritual freedom and a freedom of speech remained only among antiadvisers, the others chewed words which in 1917 caused trembling in heart, and in 1953 - m have lost force. In party in power does not remain any ideologist. From moral confusion old national values slowly emerged, but they badly approached also to multinational Soviet Union. And more likely destroyed, than connected the Union. And when reorganisation has begun, the Soviet power began to fall, as an old mushroom.
the First years of reorganisation have caused high hopes. However publicity has very soon degenerated. Pretty often it was on sale and bought. Demagogues have cleared up. The new Russian fighting with each other for the property, as gangsters on the meeting became a priority figure. It was necessary even to conclude the convention - not to use murder as means of competitive struggle. However on journalists of a taboo did not extend. Them till now hit without fear to sweep or punishments. Criminal customs and words became a fashion. Statesmen recover the speech by expressions which I remember on camp. The erudition has lost the style, the syllable, the interdiction for some things. As - that was forgot that the person is defined not only that, on what is capable, but also that, on what it resolutely is not capable.
Publicity has deduced from oblivion the books created in a silver age, in emigration; at first in them revelled. But responses of the best Russian minds to far events only partly answer present questions. The western dismantlings mention our ulcers very little. Whether the inclination to Orthodoxy, arisen after long-term tretirovanija, there is no saying will be kept. Zakona Bozhija introduction in schools can cause and nihilism. Anyway, the mass christening yet does not do people really orthodox.
Attempts to fill emptiness arrogance and memoirs on an epoch, when the whole world was afraid of us (though that good in causing fear?) - these attempts slide on a surface. Thirst of a profit, sensuality charcoal fumes, the promise of infinite pleasures from drugs grasps weight. The melancholy on depth where God the Spirit going from heart to heart breathes simultaneously accrues. But how to collect lonely, scattered on the country? How to help them to understand itself? There are small groups, to fifty, to hundred persons, seminars to which there are discussions about philosophy of Soloveva, about traditions of India, about the Buddhism a zen, - but their influence is not beyond one circle. Whether the television, the Internet to connect related groups can? Whether the generality of spiritual searches, a generality of counter-current flows to moral disintegration is possible?
the Big world of city suburbs is torn off by nature and has not entered into civilisation walls. The history has stiffened here midway. The dark will, inclined all to pull down, throws garbage of street of settlements and edges of woods. That Ekhart named vnutrennejshim the person, was too long trampled down for the sake of the fantastic purposes of revolution. And there is no saying, how many it is necessary years to support new young growth. For now we will agree to live in obscurity, but without meanness. Many containers are necessary for any garbage, including spiritual, not only in back streets and on edges, but also on Red Square.
Education - difficult business, also is made it not only at school. The youth sticks to the TV, the tired person includes the TV - and them throw sugar candies half-and-half with garbage. It is necessary to understand that you do, when speak, trying to pass on the internal experience and the open questions.
Here there is a circumstance which often forget. In any pedagogical work - including on air - it is necessary to remember character of the pupil. The open border in breadth has become a history, but remained in Russian character. Also it is necessary to constrain, but not to hold down that is named by sincere breadth (and it becomes frequent razbrosannostju). Advantage, leaving for the frameworks, becomes harm. But in itself width - not angrily. Harmony can be reached at very big width. Tolstoy and Dostoevsky`s novels have shown it. Harmony is reached by spiritual hierarchy, domination of silent depth over superficial storms. Only in a support on depth there is the style of dialogue similar to dispute by Stepuna with Trubetsky in 1913, on the eve of a century of accidents. And the tutor should have patience. Obvious results can appear not soon. For successful struggle for a freedom of speech internal freedom, inseparable from responsibility is necessary, and this unity develops year after year, decade after a decade.
to Spend improvement of Russia it is impossible if simply to shut eyes to the poisons which have been saved up by history. They cannot be cut out, as a tumour. But it is possible to bare, realise and finish them to negligibility their trace.
Zynaida Mirkina: the Freedom of speech did not become force of a word
- Grigory Solomonovich has terminated the speech by words about necessity of internal freedom. Here I also want to tell about it a little. Reorganisation has cancelled censorship. Any time we had a full freedom of speech. It is impossible to tell that now it is completely liquidated. There were any points where it is. But in Soviet period it seemed to us that the freedom of speech will be our absolute freedom. It has appeared that all not so. It was external freedom which at all has not given for what from it waited.
the Freedom of speech did not become force of a word. On the contrary, there was an indifference by the way, word devaluation. It was possible to tell everything, everything, but a word which would give meaning of the life and would help spiritual orientation with the world, it has appeared in the big deficiency.
Freedom has turned to permissiveness and unruliness. It was possible to find everything in bookshops that it was forbidden earlier: and the remarkable literature, including religious, and frankly fascist. But most of all - simply mountains of an entertaining fiction. And the present circulations were only at this easy reading matter. Circulations chernosotennoj production were too considerable that you will not tell about the literature original. (An exception L.Ulitsky`s fine book " makes, maybe, only; Translator Daniel Stein “.)
Yes, all is authorised that was forbidden before, have restored churches, began to revive religion, having turned back in “ the light past “. But what such revival of religion in which there is no present turn in depth?
That such return to belief without the reverential relation to silence in which only the Divine word also can sound? For only the silence results us inside, in that kingdom, which in us.
Internal freedom also is freedom of The one who is in us, deeply inside, in the latest our depth. It is freedom of God locked in our heart and deafened by noise of our passions, the prisoner in a cage of ours “ an ego “.
Internal freedom is a simplicity and authenticity live and eternal in us. To reject all superfluous, all ostentatious - and suddenly to leave on pure air where it is possible to breathe deeply and full.
We have received huge number of responses to our unexpected break in a television aether. We had not time to answer them. Have answered only to the little. But we were deeply excited with this melancholy by a word without falseness and rhetoric, on genuine, not to official belief.
We felt and earlier huge spiritual thirst, working at our seminar, receiving responses to our books which reached in distant corners only occasionally, - from - for small circulations and absence of system of distribution. But when us have released television, the number of responses more than was decupled. We have felt, as people need the same that is necessary also for us. In one of responses there are such words: “ There was a sensation - life is not vain. If they (that is we) such about this life have understood something, means, and I, probably, will understand something “.
it is visible, a poorly external freedom of speech. Without freedom internal, without word filling by deep sense, the word does not feed soul. And the freedom of speech easily passes in phrase-mongering.
Internal freedom is an immersing in soul deep layers. Unity which has not found till now the world, it is possible to find out only there. Also it is our problem.
In an epilogue to our general book “ Great religions of the world “ there are such words: “ the Deep kernel of one religion is closer to a deep kernel another, than to an own surface “. It concerns not only religion, but also to all culture.
to Search for unity on a surface it is useless, there all is shattered, and the unity can be only a unification of one group against another, the unity turns to punching, unification. The unity which is in depth, is that secret of life which does all space by a live organism.
to Live on a surface it is easier. To lean against the ready ideas invented by someone by another and not past through own internal experience, - where is easier, than to be oneself, find an internal support. But the one who has found this support can be truly free only.