Alexander Kuzmin: Moscow “ has eaten “ everything that have left to it “ parents “
| Alexander Viktorovich! Increasing constantly rates of building, builders nevertheless even more often complain what to build in Moscow there is all more difficult. It is valid so?
Alexander Kuzmin | Judge. The free earth in a city ever less. Hence, it is necessary to conduct building in already rendered habitable areas. And it means that if before, mastering waste grounds, we presumed to begin to ourselves designing of any object for a year two before commissioning now to start designing it is necessary years for five. After all even simply to release a platform under building, it is necessary to do grandiose work. To clean garages, yes has not simply driven bulldozers and has taken down, and to agree with each owner about pulling down conditions, then to discuss the project of the future new building with inhabitants of nearby houses - whether it will prevent them. If it not to make, consequences can be very heavy. We will remember settlement Butovo! There designers have tried to go under the old scheme. And it has resulted not only in professional complexities at project creation, but also to the conflict to the population in which have appeared all branches of the power are involved nearly. Therefore at recent session of the government of Moscow it was a question of necessity to translate city building on three - five years` planning.
RG | Really absolutely there are no free platforms?
Kuzmin | I would tell - there are no easy platforms. Even if we see an open country, to rejoice early. Most likely, it has any defect. To take at least settlement Northern - it seemed, absolutely free platform. It was in practice found out that before to architects to take in hands a pencil, it is required to take out some thousand cubes of a ground. That is it is required rekultivatsija which changes all topographical marks so, building designing is postponed.
RG | It is a unique problem which brakes work of designers?
Kuzmin | Unfortunately, no. On the second place on the importance there is a deficiency of power. Capital “ has eaten “ everything that have left to it “ parents “. I mean the capacities put still at the time of Brezhnev. As the main architect of Moscow, I remember Leonid Ilicha with very big warmth. The engineering system not only capitals, but also all country has been in his time put. All HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS, large cable electric mains... A reserve has sufficed for 15 years of quiet life. Alas! Now the resource is settled.
RG | But now in the same Moscow new power capacities are under construction.
Kuzmin | And thank God. But when still them will be in a prosperity, and building - that goes every day, and every day there is a question: how to attach to engineering networks this or that object. It becomes usually clear during the latest moment. It quite often leads to full alteration of the project that sometimes puts it on a failure side.
RG | But whence then such scales of construction?
Kuzmin | It is necessary to have time to provide all of them necessary and to be reconstructed. A simple example: in the summer of last year the mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov has made decision to hand over till the end of the year 100 kindergartens. From us it was required to design them and to release platforms under building. In general, a continuous work involving all hands, but with a problem all of us - taki have consulted. But following 100 kindergartens that is planned to enter during the current year, become already in quieter conditions. Whether
RG | There is a public control over building projects? Where guarantees, what any of them will not put harm to the Moscow architecture?
Kuzmin | In my opinion, in Moscow the system of guarantees is now fulfilled. Thanks to it the quantity of conflicts round the next foundation ditch has considerably decreased also. And that all - taki arise, as a rule, result from errors of yesterday which at times catch up with us. But if to judge from the professional point of view, obvious town-planning and architectural errors in building of Moscow I now I do not see.
RG | How much capital building is insured from subjectivity?
Kuzmin | At us the whole system of town-planning laws is generated. In addition to them this year working out of the city Town-planning code that will even more reliably protect from possible errors of architects and designers will come to the end. Remember, was, appear, “ eternal “ the conflict of builders to archeologists. But when there was a law which has decided that any work in historical territory cannot be made without preliminary archaeological works, there was a debugged mechanism of interaction. As an example to that serves Tsarina`s. Before starting to restore this unique manor, have collected some hundreds archeologists, and they in the shortest terms have examined all territory of a palace and only after that have given green light to builders.
Or other problem. Earlier at designing we suffered that did not feel so-called “ a blue line “ that is there was no the accurate understanding, what height there should be a next under construction building. The Center of the landscape analysis of Moskomarhitektury is now created, there are checked up firms which by means of computer modelling can define where the object as it will affect shape of Moscow from any historical point will be how much visible.
RG | That you will tell about a historical heritage of Moscow?
Kuzmin | I Will tell one: these buildings should keep to the full the shape and thus adequately to look and continue to serve people. These principles underlie the city approach to questions of the decision of the further destiny of all without an exception of historical buildings in Moscow.
In a city very rigid laws, perhaps, more rigid, than federal, on preservation of a natural complex and on preservation of a historical heritage are entered some. How earlier, before acceptance 40 - go the city law (the Law on protection of a historical heritage), questions were solved? The group of fans of olden time gathered, and everyone expressed the opinion. One spoke: I consider that here there can be 2 floors, another: “ And I consider that 4 “. The third asserted that here in general it is impossible to build. Like would discuss jointly, but each opinion has been based on personal predilections, on original or an exaggerated authority of separate people.
And 40 - j the law accurately fixes, what height the building can be built in this or that territory, depending on its environment. For example, if it is area “ Stalin “ buildings, the maximum height of a new building - 6 floors, both all. And whoever you were, change it you cannot. And at once it became very easy to work. When to me call, ask, whether it is impossible “ on a floor to lift “ I speak at once: it not to me, and to the public prosecutor. And the question acts in film. The same with a natural complex. There is a city law, especially protected natural territories are defined, and there will start up nobody, whoever it was.
one more very good law Now prepares for acceptance (though, maybe, a little bit late), defining that is possible, and that cannot be done in a housing estate. He will allow to forbid to convert, for example, kindergartens under office buildings because among inhabited quarters of office buildings it should not be simple.
RG | What most important projects for Moscow are now realised?
Kuzmin | On the first place on the importance I put roads. This year building of the Fourth transport ring has begun. With might and main there is a reconstruction of the Leningrad prospectus in which course it will be equipped transport “ an input “ to Moscow from St.-Petersburg. Ahead - the beginning of building of the doubler of Mozhaisk highway. It just that work which I most of all love. Not only because thanks to new lines it will be possible to move comfortably on capital. Business also that arrival of modern road always changes also all round it. As a result city boondocks turn to facades.
There is at architects such illness of which I extremely would like to get rid. This aspiration to improve areas there where and without us it is good, and finally sometimes turns out so that the favourite place of Muscovites is no time turns to something sad and unattractive. Another matter when we go to industrial zones or on city dustbins, and then on their place suddenly arises the beautiful arranged well territory which is a city in the true sense words. In general, there are two ways. It is possible, conditionally speaking, to expand city centre, and it is possible to approach, on the contrary, “ panels “ to the centre. I - for the first.