The authorities after “ fiery summer - 2010 “ have essentially changed the to the relation to wood
the Center of protection of the wild nature has estimated a damage from forest fires in Russia in 300 billion dollars. Dmitry Medvedev already has designated aspiration cardinally to reconsider the wood legislation, having subordinated Rosleshoz directly to the government. “ a fiery storm “ which with frightening ease has singed this summer helpless municipalities, has forced the authorities operatively to put things in order in pine forests and oak groves.
the Voronezh region
Imperfection of federal standard base was showed still to “ black Thursday “ on July, 29th, when after hurricane woods on perimetre of Voronezh, and then on all area have flared. Making comments on the first burnout near village Kamenno - Verhovka of Kashirsky area (it is destroyed about 20 structures, was lost the local resident), the head of central administrative board of the Ministry of Emergency Measures Igor Kobzev has declared that claims of citizens like “ rescuers to us long did not go, though wood burnt two days “ are unreasonable:
- Powers on fire protection are differentiated: primary measures accept local authorities. Besides in itself wood firemen to extinguish should not are a function of structures of management of a forestry and tenants of wood. We are connected only when there is a threat to settlement or strategic object.
Wood protection in connection with chronic underfinancing has no in the necessary quantities technics and workers for suppression of fires. The new Wood code criticised and before, but during fires it became on - to the present odious. Both officials, and foresters specify that after acceptance of this document number of experts in branch - on the places capable operatively to find out threat and to cope it, - was catastrophically reduced. Hopes of diligent tenants have not justified. (We will notice, truth that state employees, even district level, prefer not to make comments on openly problem with the code - a pier, this business of the ministries, the question is known.)
the Situation was aggravated with that local authorities in insufficient volume carried out actions for the prevention of fires: between houses and wood - a grass knee-deep, mineralizovannye strips along edges if also are, the narrow. However it is caused, as a rule, by that financing of fire-prevention actions for the law goes from the most lean - municipal - budgets. Quite often on the account of rural settlement - a zero, local residents - entirely old women, agricultural productions (which could give technics for opashki) around are not present. Administrations of areas too are rather poor: contain on some fire-engines on all subordinated territory.
some Were opened nestykovki and in the course of payment of indemnifications. So, the part of the burnt down structures has not been registered when due hereunder - the formal bases them to restore is not present. For example, the family in Maslovka had the big two-storeyed house, but under documents it was one-storeyed: a penthouse not “ It is considered “. Other case - in the house constantly was lived by the relatives registered in other place (“ feints “ with registration tenants become to stand in a queue, for example, on improvement of living conditions), or. In each specific case questions at issue dare komissionno, quite often it is necessary to shut eyes to absence pravoustanavlivajushchih documents.
the Problem is put also in criteria of selection pogoreltsev to which should indemnify a loss. The squally wind on July, 29th and the next days inflated the slightest sparks, and sometimes to define, whether there was an ignition natural or technogenic, it was almost impossible. Nadezhdy Salnikovoj family from station Saguny of Povorinsky area has appeared hostages of a situation, in particular. Fire has brought from the thrown houses, all constructions on a site of Salnikovyh have burnt out completely, other place for residing is not present and is not expected (to build the expensive). As a matter of fact, the tragedy has happened too from - for elements - differently houses would not burn out for few seconds. But the commission gospozhnadzora has found it difficult to name a cause of the fire at session of working group so, it has not been recognised by natural and indemnifications to a family do not shine. At the same time to victims at a recent fire in area village Mechyotka Bobrovsky promised to pay money and to restore houses, as “ high-grade “ pogoreltsam, - though ignition, according to official figures, has resulted from a tipping over of wires on LEP at a strong wind (that is was technogenic).
it is curious that in a pine forest on the Tanning cordon (suburb of Voronezh) where under the law can be under construction unless it is sports - improving complexes, has burnt down a number of cottages of local elite. Circumstances at which some people have received sites in wood, are forgotten, owners have the right to indemnifications from the budget.
On a level with the Nizhniy Novgorod and Voronezh areas the republic was included into number of regions where natural fires have reached menacing scales. there was it substantially because at an initial stage to tame storming on hundreds hectares of wood grounds fire it has appeared there is simply nobody. One of the reasons for that is departmental dissociation.
According to the Wood code accepted in 2007 to extinguish forest fires the organisations employed by the regional authorities should first of all. However licensed this activity is not included in the list. During August selector meeting in the government of the Russian Federation, devoted to this problem, the information that in Mordovia which quarter of territory is made by large forests, the tender for suppression of forest fires was won by the organisation, number of 50 persons, equipped with two units of technics has sounded.
As a result in July - August when the situation in region woods was characterised most by the higher - the fifth class of danger, the Ministry of Emergency Measures daily was necessary to distract free divisions on these sites, fire worked in an emergency mode, on deterioration. In total for three days in Zubovo - Half-Jansky area of republic fires have practically destroyed three villages - Fresh, Vadovsky Selishchi and Podljasovo. Fire stormed in vicinities of the largest prison enclave of Europe - colonies UFSIN on RM where contains about 15 thousand condemned. A flame from flaring reserve it. Smidovicha that in Temnikovsky area of republic, some times broke to the federal nuclear centre in Sarov.
For struggle against elements in republic mobilisation has been declared - thousand volunteers have gone to woods filled with fires. They made the overwhelming majority of those who was in a disaster zone: so, 3 - on August, 4th on fire extinguishing in reserve it. Smidovicha 1100 persons, more than 900 of them - volunteers have been occupied nearby. According to the Ministry of Emergency Measures, from protective means to volunteers masks, on occasion - gas masks stood out only, and neither those, nor do not rescue others from a poisoning with products of burning. Besides, any privileges and measures of support for this category by the legislation for today it is not provided - to volunteers “ fiery front “ it is not necessary neither the insurance, nor indemnifications on a case of state of emergency.
the Indicative example - the tragedy which has happened with 56 - the summer volunteer from Saransk Vasily Teljatnikovym extinguishing a fire in vicinities RFJATS. In the conditions of strong smoke blanketing the man has beaten off from group, has lost the way in wood and has choked carbonic oxide. The only thing, on what his family - indemnification in one million the roubles, relying native can count today the victim from natural fires.
the Heads of the municipal unions who have faced forest fires, consider that if not the help of the government of republic it would be very difficult to them to defend settlements at elements. A problem, as well as at others, - in limitation powers, besides areas are insufficiently equipped by a special equipment.
- With struggle against fire to us helped with technics because the at us in area, it is possible to tell, no, including heavy, - the head of municipal union " speaks; Kilemarsky area “ Nikolay Sorokin. - also that is interesting, according to 131 - mu to the law we it and to get - that we can not. It to buy, and the public prosecutor will tell: no-purpose use of means.
Nevertheless last year in this area have allocated from the local budget of 960 thousand roubles for purchase of a fire-engine in cost of 1 million 500 thousand roubles (other means under the program sofinansirovanija have been directed from the republic budget), have constructed fire depot, but to contain a command it has appeared it is unprofitable.
In Kilemarsky area have faced and other problem. Wood rises directly to kitchen gardens, to houses of settlements, and ognebortsy cannot keep within frameworks of the established 50 metres of a fire-prevention barrier. Experts say that for today this barrier should be at least metres 200 - 300. In a word, heads of municipal unions consider that it is necessary for legislators to reconsider these specifications or to create “ a plug “ let us assume, from 50 to 200 metres that it was possible to make the decision depending on settlement, character of wood and a situation.
In the meantime lessons and conclusions in Mary El`s territory have been made one of these days of state of emergency and at session of the governmental commission on the prevention and liquidation of emergency situations and to maintenance of fire safety. In particular, in RME it is planned to create the centres on struggle against forest fires in territory of Morkinsky area, Kujarsky and Vizimjarsky rural settlements. In the republican budget means for their equipment by fire-engines, bulldozers, trailers, by capacities for water, motor-pumps will be provided. The Ministry of a forestry and structures subordinated to it will operate activity of these centres. In areas will generate the mobile groups trained in suppression of forest fires.
- the problem Is put also to finish in 2011 level of security of municipal unions fire technics to 95 percent, - the first deputy of the head of the government Nikolay Kuklin has told. - So, to the place of a fire calculation should arrive in 20 minutes after signal reception. Other actions for strengthening of fire safety will be spent also. As woods in Mary El occupy 53 percent of territory.
the Ulyanovsk region
In the Ulyanovsk region which was included also into number “ fire-dangerous “ all has developed absolutely differently, than at neighbours. Mordovia, the Penza and Samara areas around blazed. Fires were and in the Ulyanovsk region, however it became the first regions where all ignitions have been liquidated.
- And all it - without thanking, and, more likely, contrary to the operating wood legislation, - has explained the Director of department of a forestry of the ministry of a forestry, wildlife management and ecology of the Ulyanovsk region Vladimir Buzoverov. - The greatest problem which all regions - that has been liquidated, undoubtedly, important and necessary structure - wood protection have faced. The expert who answered, including, for timely detection of the centres of ignition and their initial suppression has been fixed to each site.
In region have tried to keep on a maximum the rests of former system. Last year here still operated posts of foresters. Since 2010 them have abolished. However the people who are carrying out them of function, nevertheless remained - at forest areas and timber enterprises, at the expense of an administrative resource.
One more blank in the legislation - the organisation of suppression of woods, according to 94 FZ, through competition carrying out. In the Ulyanovsk region on this innovation have burnt: in 2008 on participation in auction one organisation which had no forces necessary for work and means was declared only. In 2009 to the law have made amendments: Have allowed to conclude contracts with the organisations without competition provided that the sum will not exceed 100 thousand roubles a quarter. As a result timber enterprises lose money: they are compelled to involve own means instead of developing.
And last nuance. In region it has been created OGU “ the Center on maintenance of fire safety “. It is the organisation which is engaged exclusively in suppression of forest fires. However for its normal work it is necessary to register accurately at first that it will be conducted at the expense of direct budget financing. Money for its maintenance undertook from federal subventions, and this year, partially, from the regional budget.
By the way, Center creation should facilitate considerably life to timber enterprises and forest areas: now on fire-fighting of people “ will mobilise “ directly with workplaces.