Albert Lihanov: For 20 years of reforms in an orphanhood was “ it is dumped “ about two millions children
to Writer Albert Lihanovu, the chairman of the Russian children`s fund and the president of the International association of children`s funds, 75 years today are executed. He has told to our correspondent about “ children`s problems “ in Russia.
: Albert Anatolevich who was own childhood of the defender of the childhood?
Albert Lihanov: absolutely safe though it was necessary on war. My father has passed war, was twice wounded, but has returned. Mum was the laboratorian in hospital. To me has carried that I studied at the remarkable teacher. In 1949 it has received Lenin`s second award for long service, monetary compensation was applied on it. She considered that has not the right to spend money for. Bought vitamin C and every morning bypassed a class, giving on a silver spoon to each pupil “ goroshinku “. In its honour I have founded in Kirov the award for teachers of elementary schools. Money I pay from personal earnings and fees.
RG: your civil reputation is created by the letter to the country leaders about destiny of children - orphans. How you estimate position of children - orphans today?
Lihanov: Position crisis. The decision was some years ago accepted: to close children`s homes and to distribute children to people. But for this purpose there should be a readiness of people to take the child from children`s home. Adoption - the most radical and easiest form for the state. Giving the child on adoption, it is more in its destiny does not participate. Though it is vain. And another is the form: to take the child under guardianship or guardianship. Children are in a foster home on conditions when for their maintenance parents obtain reward (fee).
By our calculations, for last three years was rozdano 90 thousand children. Children`s homes have been closed, and buildings where they were, are sold more often. But crisis, money for the maintenance of children has begun and compensation to parents began to be paid with a delay. And behaviour of bodies of guardianship concerning these people - mentor as if they have made a great kindness for these people - have given the chance to them to earn additionally. In 2007 4500 children have returned back, in 2008 - 6500 children, in 2009 - 10 - 11 thousand. Have in total returned 30 000 children. In reception parents frequently there are casual people.
RG: Where children have returned?
Lihanov: In children`s homes. The maintenance of the child in children`s home manages to the state in 150 - 200 thousand roubles - in some regions and more. Here our financial innovators have estimated that, giving the child to a family, it is possible to save. But as soon as the treasury starts to save on children, it burns through. We - Children`s fund - have created system of family children`s homes.
RG: In what advantage of this system?
Lihanov: the Family accepts not less than 5 children at once. Mum gets wages of the senior tutor of children`s home. But the most important thing, it receives all social package, to it there is an experience. If the family lifts children within ten years and it is visible that everything is all right it has the right to reception of the state habitation. We have undertaken many efforts that these families received doubled and stroennye apartments, cottages, at home. In 1996 this system have covered.
RG: How many children now take away from parents and transfer to the state?
Lihanov: For 20 years of reforms in an orphanhood was “ it is dumped “ about two millions children. Units are beaten out from them. Today at us the TECHNICAL TRAINING COLLEGE system where they could receive though any suitable trade is broken. Children badly prepare for life, there was even time when to 90 % of children which left children`s homes, vanished. They were tightened by the criminal environment.
And, for example, concerning orphans of post-war time there was a command: “ to drag out “ to 10 classes. To the student - to the orphan gave a hostel, many went to military institutions. Then they, as experts, fulfilled 2 - 3 years and received habitation. Got families, and all developed normally. Today such system is not present. Very quite good system of support of orphans when they get to high school However, works. But the few reach high school.
RG: With what mood you celebrate the anniversary?
Lihanov: With the sad. I should ascertain that position of children in our country worsens. We have lost much of our gains. First of all - starting equality. Children should not share on rich and poor, white and colour, parental and bezroditelskih - each child should have an equal chance with the neighbour to take place.
At us 700 thousand children - invalids. It is a lot of “ children of group of risk “ - orphans and children who study at schools for intellectually - defective children. Their socialisation does not exist almost.
RG: your plans and intentions?
Lihanov: we have a herd of cows. We raise money and we buy cows whom we distribute to poor families. (This project has begun in the Amur region.) we want to create a principle of virtuous dominoes. We collect means for restoration of the burnt down house of Paustovsky. We help pogoreltsam.
RG: When you manage to write thus?
Lihanov: One month in a year during holiday.