The Ural scientists insist on studying of value of each minute
Twice a year when in Russia translate arrows on winter or summertime, among scientists and politicians disputes on necessity of time reforms inflame.
there were fierce discussions in the Spring, whether it is necessary to change time zones, and finally a part of regions has come nearer on time to Moscow. And now it is offered to deputies of the State Duma to consider the bill of full cancellation of transition to seasonal time.
“ the Weight of initiatives arises because in the country have ceased to study value of time, - the scientist - the demographer, the employee of institute of economy UroRaN Alexander Kuzmin is assured. - hour not frontier, it to transfer and even to cancel easily, but these changes will necessarily affect both economy, and on a country demography “. The Ural scientists insist: before time reforms it is necessary to count all consequences. Whether really it to make, Alexander Kuzmin has told to the correspondent.
Aeksandr Kuzmin: In Russia, unlike the western countries, long considered time as concept inviolable. Up to October revolution the country lived without any time zones. On the sun. There was a star - it is time to work, the village - to sleep. Possible transition to zone system was perceived by the imperial government precisely “ a shock of bases “ and “ violation of sacred originality “. All were changed by Bolsheviks. They have understood: to operate the country, and especially to spend industrialisation without management of time it is impossible.
: That is development of economy and management of time - things interconnected?
Kuzmin: it is unconditional, at the heart of all time reforms the aspiration to administrative efficiency lies exclusively. Afterwards there are various social and medical aspects without which account reorganisation of hours too it is impossible for a message. I think that the recent offer on reduction in Russia of time zones was braked just because scientists have told - are not present. At us too stretched country that it was possible to establish uniform time for everything as it, for example, is made in China.
Ignore the sun we cannot. If to change time of the beginning of day and its termination, without being guided by real rising and a sunset the human body will glitch. Every possible illnesses will be shown, life expectancy will be reduced that as a result will affect a demography. So the main problem how to find things in common between light and administrative time which really would push the further development of the country.
RG: And it it is really possible to count? And considering not only economic benefit, but also demographic changes?
Kuzmin: I Think, yes. There is such economic concept: time budget. It is the scientific term which has appeared in the late thirties thanks to works of academician Stanislav Strumilina. It had a particular interest to time research. Strumilin has proved to Stalin that, changing time characteristics of activity of the person, it is possible to operate people. And to operate - not always means to maneuver. Creation of the most comfortable conditions for life Means also. Even at building in days of the first five-years periods of new cities or working areas, such as sotsgorodok the Uralmash, for example, was considered the budget of time of workers. Universal “ a sun city “ where all is harmonious, all is thought over, all is subordinated to time current. All rise for work on factory hooter, go for work on wide streets, for rest the park here is broken, the bath there is constructed, on stolkih - that corners beer stalls are opened.
RG: And beer - that here and?
Kuzmin: They too were considered at the analysis of time characteristics of life of the Soviet person as a certain kind of rest. Party heads wanted to know all about one minute about country life: how many at the person should leave for work, on hygienic procedures, on a family, on a political information and for feasts. And similar researches were conducted in the USSR throughout half a century regularly.
RG: Why about them it is not known? It was the classified information?
Kuzmin: is faster closed, than confidential. Recently there were the proceedings telling, as Germans during World War II howl ny in occupied territories spent both population census, and the account “ time budget “ the grasped population...
In the USSR Gosstat was engaged in it. The budget of time of the person shared on annual, monthly, week. And figures appeared the unexpected. For example, standardly it is considered that the working day at the Soviet citizen did not exceed 8 hours. Under the average data of the budget of time of 1985, at men for work left in day of 9 hours of 48 minutes, and at the woman - 9 hours of 35 minutes. Certainly, these figures are conditional: all sum of expenses of time at investigated group undertook and paid off under formulas.
More than 50 thousand persons conducted calculations of personal time in interests of the state. They were engaged in it under the state order, and nobody aspired to tell about similar extra earnings. Calculation directions, besides working hours, there was a set: how many leaves on housekeeping conducting, on education of children, on visiting of theatres, playing sports, visits on a visit, on physiological requirements, such, as a dream, meal, sex and so on. Figures curious. So, on physiological requirements at the person in everyday life left less than nine hours, and during week-end - almost eleven. On TV viewing in everyday life - 51 minute, and during week-end - an hour and a half. In 1990 there was even such column, as political activity. Left that in day the average man from the USSR spent for a policy 1 minute.
RG: It something reminds shpionomaniju and total control. For what to the state thoroughly to study personal time of citizens?
Kuzmin: Total control here at anything. All data from Goskomstat arrived in special branch of academy of Sciences where they were analyzed and transferred in the State Planning Committee. The state hardly probable is not per second knew about life of the citizen and counted necessity of building cultural - household establishments, kindergartens and so on. That is built those five years` and other strategic plans socially - economic development.
But with transition by capitalism at the state interest up the time of the citizens was gone. Now in this direction separate scientific researches in regions are conducted only. Though the school is not forgotten also techniques are available. For example, in Ural Mountains recently students have conducted researches about the budget of time of youth. But results of these researches in any plans, naturally, will not get.
RG: Perhaps it and to the best. After all the country does not live already on a planned economy. If it is interesting to any company to know all about the workers, let spends money for researches.
Kuzmin: In the majority of the large companies really for a long time have learnt to appreciate and consider time. The time - management knows all: how many minutes or hours the employee spends for smoke breaks, how many on meal... However time of the employee after work: whether there is at it a possibility to have a rest, arrange the child in a kindergarten, at last, to sleep - interests nobody. And it is a pity. At such approach, moreover impulses carry out time reforms we can to lose both manpower resources, and economic potential.
to Divide all earth on 24 - time zones on 15 degrees in everyone, and for a zero line to take Greenwich meridian - the middle of a zero belt - the Canadian engineer - signalman Sendford Fleming has offered. In a belt time is accepted everywhere identical, and on border translate arrows on an hour forward or back. Thus the deviation from natural solar time should not exceed 30 minutes. In 1883 Fleming`s idea was accepted by the government of the USA, and in 1884 at the international conference in Washington 26 countries have signed the agreement on time zones and zone time. On February, 8th, 1918 zone division has been entered by the decree of Council of national commissioners “ With a view of an establishment monotonous with all civilised world of the account of time within the days, causing on all globe the same indications of hours in minutes and seconds... “