Not a Torah uniformIn Israel political crisis: the most powerful has collapsed for last decades ruling coalition under which control there were 95 places in parliament from 120. The reason — attempt to call up for military service orthodox jews
If who has not understood, it is a question of those acquaintances all on pictures about the Israeli exotic children, which and in terrible local heat when even a T-shirt in burden, go in black dolgopolyh lapserdakah and black wide-brimmed hats, and on Saturdays some of them also in fur caps shtrajml. They do not shave a beard, ridiculous side curls let grow, avoid to look at women (and to look here is on what especially in this heat) to sit next to them in the bus; the TV they do not look too, on the Internet visit only resolved sites. Many of them are not burdened by any knowledge, except a Scriptus, and any skills, except studying of sacred texts. Sports at this public too not in honour so not all from them, I think, in a status to pass and devchonochy the test for endurance in a course of the Israeli young fighter 2 - kilometre jog accompanied by a medical brigade and a jeep with mineral water as here it is accepted.
And that`s it from - for these gallant guys who suddenly extremely were necessary for the strongest army in the Near East and hardly probable not the most fighting in the world, all and happens. From - for a question on their appeal the widest has collapsed in the history of the country a coalition and hardly the government has not fallen. And on the future elections all this turmoil will cost for certain to the present prime minister if not places (though, can, and it), ten mandates of party led by its.
what for? Ask about it any israelite who has been not covered with a black hat. Nine of ten will respond, without reflecting: " And for social justice! All minister and these should! "
Such is a public stereotype. Many israelites really consider that if they will force ultraorthodoxes to minister, there will be it a happiness.
but has put here at all in social justice as all are around convinced, and of economic feasibility.
only from - for it, instead of a certain abstract justice which no more than a convenient screen, occurs public shocks, political open-cast mines and alliances fall and under construction. Though very few people it understands, even in Israel (the country Jewish, that is why presumably practical) and to very many people it is favourable that understood less.
a rule exception
In Israel, as it is known, a universal compulsory military service. On reaching 18 years are obliged to minister all both #150; and boys, and girls. Moreover: minister.
is, truth, in it excessive generalisation and some exaggeration. Without saying that eventually more and more the israelites who are subject to an appeal, for various reasons shirk it, there are population groups on which the general rule does not extend.
officially the Israeli Arabs are released from army. Here as though all is clear: Israel in a status of permanent war first of all with the Arabian countries and to force the citizens of the Arabian origin to direct the weapon against their fellow tribesmen it would be unethical. And it means that 1 million 300 thousand Arabian citizens, about 20 percent of the population of the country, naturally out of an obligatory appeal.
the situation with Jews and #150 is much not clearer; religious ultraorthodoxes. In Israel them name " haredim " that it is possible to translate as " adherents of belief ". The mission they see in service of God and preservation of century national values as them understand. Live in the closed world, adjoining with external both #150; Israel only necessarily. Follow the laws and traditions.
one of these traditions, developed during talmudical times, that is in IV - VI centuries: each Jewish boy from 3 years starts to learn a Torah. At first in hedere, then, is closer to majority, 13 years, in ieshive where learn basically the Talmud, then, already having married, in kolele. There there is no term of training the Jew learns a Torah all life, and, from the point of view haredim, there is no for it an employment more important.
during training in ieshive to the young man it is executed 18 and it as any citizen of Israel is subject to an appeal. When it happens the first time (not 18 - letie, of course, and there was a state in 1948), the first prime minister - the minister, David Ben - Gurion who has put all algorithms of existence of the country both #150; and kind and bad, has accepted solomonovo the decision: To give ieshibotnikam a draught deferment for the period of study. That is for ever.
to that there was a weighty ideological substantiation. During Accident (has passed only three years after war) nazis have destroyed the oldest ieshivy, the majority from which was in the Eastern Europe. Ben - Gurion considered that a duty of the newborn Jewish state to give chance of restoration of this major national institute.
then ieshibotnikov, released from service, there were 400 persons. Loss for army and fair distribution of the military man of burden is insignificant.
" however during a way the dog could grow up ". Ben - Gurion though knew Russian, Marshak did not read, read Lenin. And there was all on Marshak: now ieshibotnikov, subject to an appeal on urgent and rezervistskuju service, about 60 thousand.
but quantitative changes only a problem part. Where it is more important qualitative.
the Blessing sideways
Communities haredim are in many countries with the big congestion of the Jewish population in the USA, Belgium, France, Great Britain... But only in Israel where they have received when - that the first privilege not to minister in army, haredim dare and not to work. Because only in Israel there are political parties of ultraorthodoxes, and they play an essential role in political life of the country.
Haredim make from 8 to 10 percent of the population of the country, however their electoral weight incommensurably above. It is the most disciplined and solid electorate. 64 years of the Israeli history political leaders of ultraorthodoxes strictly were on guard of interests of the voters how they understood them, and have achieved much.
skilfully unscrewing hands to all Israeli governments, they at the expense of treasury have created powerful system of own education. At their schools almost base, secular sciences until recently were not studied. Their graduates do not have not enough elementary knowledge to participate as equals in a labour market. They study a Torah, get families, but provide them cannot. Live on the state grant and private offerings by the same ieshivam, the children`s allowances, which their politicians beat out from treasury.
as a result of this successful political activity the society of ultraorthodoxes becomes more and more closed both more and more poor. And promptly growing: except the main covenant Torah and prayer studying they regularly carry out the first precept given to supreme Adam and Eve: " Pru at - to a ditch " " Breed and breed ". Israel the country with most quickly increasing population in the Western world. Even in secular families of three children almost standard norm. But at haredim on the average six.
All it calls for a long time pressure in a society. On middle class excessive cargo falls. Those who minister in army, pass rezervistskuju service, get education (and pay for it), taxes pay, should protect and contain a part of the population which does not work, does not pay taxes, lives on grants, and this part of the population grows advancing rates.
the usual israelite from 18 years goes to army. For three years (girls on two). If it especially successful soldier or gets to elite armies, as a rule, passes officer courses, remains on extra urgent. Enters the university or college in 23 - 25 years. It is urged to work to pay for study and to contain itself. To years to 27 - 28 gets education and only starts to build career. By this time gets a family, should remove or buy apartment hardly beginning independent life, it all in debts and not come true hopes.
Its contemporary from the Arabian or ultraorthodox sector does not know these problems. The Arab in 18 will enter the university (if will want), the ultraorthodox will continue to study in ieshive and will receive the grant from the state, to wait the subsidised habitation for haredim in blossoming of their parties built the whole quarters and cities.
and at the first, naturally, full sensation of that second two densely sit on his neck. How it will concern them?
on this indignation many politicians and full lots have made to themselves career. So there was prime minister Ehud a Barrack in 1999 going on elections with the promise to finish with " domination haredim " (about what has there and then forgotten, having headed the government and having included in it haredim).
On it has decided to play both the former head of the Joint Staff and the Minister of Defence the general - lieutenant Shaul Mofaz, the party leader " Kadima ". In the spring Mofaz was included into ruling coalition, having joined government Netanjahu. Only such coalition, he has explained, can spend historic steps in state life: change in political system and uniform distribution army burden.
has begun with the second.
hunting and bondage
As social justice the most running political goods, it expose on a public counter as the main thing.
recently struggle for justice in distribution of army service became the centre of public disputes. Social protests which shook Israel last summer, present have poured out in tent protests " Movements fraerov ".
" Fraer " in Israeli slenge the same that in Russian " the sucker ". The protenstants naming with reservists, demand from the government of an immediate universal appeal Though on army service, though on alternative (in police, fire service, first aid, hospitals, an accomplishment). That supposedly not we one ministered has bothered to be fraerami.
But business - that not in army. And at all in social justice. And in economic necessity as already before it has been told.
long before occurrence " Movements fraerov " and their protest tents on tel - avivskoj the areas, I at recently by then three years ago interviewed the appointed economic adviser of premieres - the minister, the head of National board of economy of the professor of Eugene Kandelja.
Among the main directions of economic strategy of Israel he named two. The first consisted in disposal of the world of oil dependence about what I and wrote in " the Spark " (N 2 for 2011). And the second then seemed to me strange: involving in a national economy of the Arabian and ultraorthodox sector. Preparing this material, I have talked again to professor Kandelem and its some colleagues to update figures and to go deep into a subject which now suddenly became actual for the majority of israelites, and for developers of economic strategy of Israel, it appears, for a long time already.
a simple example, tells Kandel. Now the total national income per capita in Israel 32 thousand dollars. We will lift to 36 thousand it will be level of Great Britain. We will add a little more we leave on level of Germany.
and at the expense of what?
In that is that all and business. This indicator in the Arabian and ultraorthodox sector twice more low, than at other Israel. Both these sectors most quickly growing in Israel. If we will not manage to tighten them to level of the active population all country will roll down downwards every year. If it will be possible Will rise on level of the most developed countries.
the most problem audience in respect of employment is made by the Arabian women and men - ultraorthodoxes. At haredim works more women, than men. In general, a traditional situation for ultraorthodoxes for a long time. The husband learns a Torah, and the wife feeds a family so it was in places.
in Israel this tendency looks so: still three years ago among haredim worked only 37 percent of men. Now 45, also it is the big success. And women already 60 percent. Many of them are occupied in find fault - flew, only courses suffice them to master at decent level of a trade of computer schedules, chertezhnits, operators.
a fertile material for development of the necessary trades in the market and men - haredim.
They are the people quickly conceiving the new information, at them well trained memory, they since the childhood have got used to persistent study, The adviser of the head of the government for communications with Russian press Alex Selsky explains. simply studied not in that it is possible to sell on a labour market. But when they come for work, with them are happy. And now a tendency to that they want to work.
crisis has occurred in 2003. Israel was on the verge of an economic collapse. It has been partly connected with successes of ultrareligious parties: they have achieved the unprecedented blessings for the electorate social benefits grew, by leaps and bounds. The law spent by orthodoxes on increase in children`s allowances should finish economy. Since the fifth child in a family, it should grow to 900 shekels (about 250 dollars) on everyone the subsequent. Naturally, this god-send could use basically haredim and Arabs. It was not necessary to work on a broader scale only give birth.
Wise prime minister Sharon has offered then to the main rival for leadership in party in power Netanjahu which had a reputation for the big economist, to head the Ministry of Finance to rescue the country. That has agreed and has first of all frozen action of the new law. And also has stopped building of the subsidised habitation for haredim. Also has rescued treasury. But has ruined the political career: on elections has received 12 mandates instead of 39.
At what here the army appeal, from - for which breaks till now so much copies?
the answer is simple: in army both on an active service, and on alternative haredim are socialised, see other people, receive the necessary trades in a society.
in 2008 when we began this campaign, on army service has come 300 haredim, on alternative civil 15. Last year it was called in army 1300, on civil service 1100. After service of 80 percent haredim leave on a labour market, and without it 15.
That this tendency for Israel means? Rescue.
in 20 years from 30 to 50 percent of recruits in Israel will be from families haredim. If process to stop the army will become empty at first, and then the economy will become scanty also.
all it could occur, if has passed the law on an appeal which prepared under the aegis of general Mofaza. It provided an immediate appeal of all. And rigid sanctions to conscientious objectors up to prison. If ieshibotnikov force have torn off from Torah studying, there would be a rebellion. They a system would go to prison. The country would be overflowed by a wave of civil protests. And the tendency of a voluntary appeal haredim would stop.
But the law has not passed. Mofaz has not received political points. And the greatest coalition in the history of the country has collapsed. Nikakoj social justice. Fraeram there was an occasion to live in tents. But for the country it, appears, the blessing...