Attempt to afflictionHaving studied the list of the Russian cities in which last years there were large natural accidents, " the Power " has come to a conclusion: the majority of tragedies occurs in cities which have been constructed not for life of people, and for the decision of state problems.
in Russia there is a whole category of the cities constructed contrary to the natural logic. And it does their especially life-threatening the site is chosen so that settlements suffer affliction often from natural accidents. If people chose, where it to lodge, for certain would find other, more safe place. But a choice at them was not to the place of their future settlement the state necessity has driven. And so far as concerns the state necessity, the price of human life is extremely insignificant.
such city is Krymsk which have suffered from flooding. The city located on river banks Adagum costs on a way of a drain going down from mounts. Definitive clearness concerning the main reason of flooding still is not present (the version about dump of water from the Neberdzhaevsky water basin denies that its sluices are on the other hand a hillside though had a version about presence the water basin of a mine spillway from which water ostensibly could get directly to a channel of Adaguma later). Nevertheless the arrangement of a city at the foot of a hill did its doomed in case of a strong high water as a result of heavy rains or a tornado the concentrated water stream, having sped up, could take down a part of houses. Similar has last time occurred in Krymske in 2002, delugings of different severity level happened and before.
why people have lodged there, at the foot of a hill, on a probable way of water streams? The answer is given by city history. The first inhabitants have come in Krymsk against the will. In 1858 on a place of the future city the strong hold named in honour of Crimean 73 - go an infantry regiment and #150 has been constructed; He has played the big role in conquest by the Russian empire of caucasus. The strong hold was necessary to be fixed in the territory recently won from mountaineers, and to create the Russian advanced post near borders of Ottoman empire. And in 1862 round a strong hold 140 served soldiers whom the authorities have written down in the Kuban Cossacks, distances by it the earth in a restless place have been lodged and have left to hold territory. Long time of Krymsk developed as a military advanced post. The place was strategically important, and about security of civil inhabitants of a village the government then was not too baked, and there were no in Krymske first civil, one military families.
if to look at the list of the Russian cities in which last 20 years there were large cataclysms, it will appear that the majority of them have similar with Crimean the history. People built these cities not simply so, them moved this or that state interest. More often economic or military.
Many such cities arose as boundary advanced posts. For example, Blagoveshchensk based in 1856 as Ust - Zejsky military fast settlement of a task force of transbaikalian Cossacks, before which were a task in view to be fixed on the left coast of the Cupid to prove its accessory of the Russian empire in territorial disputes with tsinskim China. And though the chosen place has appeared is subject to tornadoes and earthquakes, it especially did not confuse anybody. The most well-known city of this kind capital St.-Petersburg constructed by Peter I in the middle of bogs for fastening of positions of Russia on Baltic sea. Since then flooding pursue northern capital every year, and she tries to be protected from all of them by higher dams.
not the best destiny comprehended economic advanced posts of the Russian empire. So, Lensk started to develop in a XVIII-th century as a strong point for Bering`s expeditions, then long time was a place of political exiles, and already at the Soviet power with 1950 - h years became the centre of diamond-mining region. The close arrangement to the river has made a city to subject flooding most terrible of which last time happens in 2001 when all city has deluged as a result of an ice jam on Lena.
even more a vivid example Berezniki in the Perm edge. Working out of deposits of potash salts has begun there in XVI century. To the XX-th century middle the considerable part of the expanded Berezniki (now their population exceeds 156 thousand persons) has appeared over mines. And in some places of emptiness are located all in 250 - 300 m from an earth surface that time and again led to failures (last failure at railway station Berezniki has happened two years ago). Now the city administration settles emergency buildings.
the Soviet empire also built cities proceeding from economic necessity, not especially caring of people. In 1945 the Soviet power which has won from Japan Kuriles, has started to occupy with their garrisons. Based soon after returning of islands Severo - Kurilsk has been washed off a tsunami in 1952, but subsequently is completely restored.
a classical example of the Soviet economic advanced post settlement Neftegorsk on Sakhalin. Constructed in 1959 almost in 100 km to the south from the city of Oha, it has been wiped out by earthquake on May, 28th, 1995. Despite seismodanger of district the city consisted from Soviet pjatietazhek which have in a moment developed after a nine-mark push. From 3,5 thousand inhabitants of Neftegorska 2040 persons were lost. Settlement recognised as not subject to restoration and have erected on its place a memorial. One more such city Sayansk in the Irkutsk region, it in 1970 have started to build round chemical industrial complex " Sajanskhimplast " (industrial complex in the middle of a taiga have decided to erect in honour of 100 - summer anniversary Lenin). Besides severe environmental conditions the city has appeared in a zone of high waters last large flooding has fallen upon Sayansk in 2001, was lost eight persons.
a special case the cities arising round nuclear objects. To Chernobyl tragedy the Ozersk in the Chelyabinsk area (Chelyabinsk - 40), grown round production association " was the most well-known of them; the Beacon " which produced components for the nuclear weapon. In September, 1957 here there was the first in the history of the USSR of state of emergency on nuclear object the capacity for a radioactive waste has blown up. The data about quantity of victims is not known till now.
the list of potentially dangerous places for residing, including cities, exists. So, in 2005 within the limits of the federal target program " Decrease in risks and softening of consequences of emergency situations of natural and technogenic character in the Russian Federation " (it affirms time in a five-years period since 2000) All-Russia scientifically - the research institute on problems of civil defence and emergency situations (all-union scientific research institute GOCHS) has developed the Map of complex individual risk for the population of Russia on which starting with 18 indicators of potential threat the most dangerous and most safe regions of Russia have been reflected. Researchers promised to update and publish a new map annually, but since its 2005 more nobody saw.
in the same 2005 the Center of strategic researches of civil protection (TSSI) the Ministry of Emergency Measures has let out the big Atlas of dangers and risks of emergency situations in the Russian Federation. The multipage volume atlas contains maps with distribution of dangerous zones on the most various parametres: From seismodanger and probability of landslips to risk of distribution of a locust and a road condition as brave factor for road accident occurrence. Similar atlases are issued in each federal district. A main objective of drawing up of such atlas, told " the Authorities " head TSSI the Ministry of Emergency Measures Michael Faleev, socially - economic planning of territory, " not to build that is not necessary, there, where it is not necessary ".
Thus both the map, and the atlas are almost inaccessible to the ordinary citizen them employees of regional branches of the Ministry of Emergency Measures can use only.