More widely the worldAstrophysics have declared tremendous opening: it appears, we live in infinity not only in space, but also in time. As a matter of fact, our Universe — it only one of eonov, stages in a turn of the Universes which are regularly given rise by the Big explosions
In vain say that the epoch of great opening in fundamental science has ended. That it has given way to tiresome and highly specialised humdrum of life, at which not knowledge of the world, and methodical preparation of soil for technological innovations and #150 becomes the main task of the scientist; we will admit, search of the improved formula of a cream from wrinkles with nanografenovymi nanokristallami. Even if in similar statements also there is a share of bitter true, 2012 suddenly was marked by a train most that on is fundamental breaks which have shaken foundations and from which povejalo by the romanticism forgotten partially in a science.
so, had not time to celebrate capture bozona with Higgsa as the new sensation has burst: The British physicists Roger Penrouz and Vage Gurzadjan have found out on a map of relic radiation the proof that our Universe only one of stages in a turn of the Universes regularly generated by the Big explosions. The report on it has sounded and at Ginzburgovsky conference on the physics which has passed recently within the precincts of Physical institute of P.N.Lebedev of the Russian Academy of Sciences that forces to concern seriously offered changes kosmologicheskoj doctrines.
circles in heavens
So, relic radiation these are the light waves which have remained from a Big Bang. Only for the last billions years light photons have cooled down and have turned to radio-waves with temperature plus 2,7 on Calvin`s scale, that is all on 2,7 degrees above temperature of absolute vacuum. This radiation has been opened still half a century ago and first it is accepted for usual radio noise, but then the American physicist of the Russian origin George Gamov has proved: it not simply noise, and come up to now " Echo " a Big Bang some kind of a portrait of an early stage of development of our Universe. Break in research of this radiation has occurred in 2001 when into a circumterraneous orbit space radio telescope WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe has been deduced) which has made for the first time a detailed picture of relic radiation.
and here, seemingly, new break the physicist - the theorist from the Oxford university sir Roger Penrouz has found out mysterious concentric circles on a map of relic radiation of the Universe, the which fact of presence is not entered in existing theories. It has made this opening with assistance of physicist Vage Gurzadjana working under the program of experiment BOOMERanG, experiment included supervision over relic radiation by means of the equipment located by a balloon which flied over Antarctic.
The analysis of relic radiation shows shape of the Universe while its age totaled all 100 thousand years, academician Penrouz has declared in the report. Certainly, its device essentially differed from modern was not still neither stars, nor galaxies, and the substance in all points of space was almost homogeneous. Nevertheless on maps of relic radiation instead of expected random distribution hardly more and hardly less " hot " the areas scattered in any order, we have found out concentric patterns rings in which disorder of temperature of a microwave background it is abnormal it is low. But, according to the existing theory, all temperature differences on maps cannot exceed and one thousand share of percent.
scientists even have calculated that the probability of spontaneous occurrence of a ring with ultralow temperatures makes of areas 10 in a minus 7 - j degrees. The probability of occurrence of two rings basically is impossible. But on maps of relic radiation scientists have found tens such rings. And then Penrouz and Gurzadjan have put forward an original hypothesis: such traces also should remain on a relic background if the Universe has not arisen when - that at once a Big Bang, but was always, extended simply periodically and compressed.
thus, Penrouz, and #150 is assured; we live in the cyclic Universe in which the end of one epoch which we name eonom, coincides with the beginning another. Each cycle of expansion came to an end with compression after which there was a new Big Bang and expansion. Such cyclic Universe should be similar to a nested doll: its each previous status contains in the subsequent. And the present Universe should " to remember " About previous, anyway, about its last days, when the compressed Universe kollapsirovala in catastrophic collisions of few remained huge black holes.
if it is really correct, all our base representations about the Universe, its occurrence and about stories need the most radical audit.
Throughout centuries people on a broader scale tried not to reflect on how our world is arranged. Besides on all questions authorities of church gave the laconic answer: the Universe is created by incomprehensible God for the sake of incomprehensible for the mortal purposes, and a point. Certainly, men of science would like to mind, but the facts for serious kosmologicheskih at the disposal of a science did not suffice disputes. Even in the beginning of the last century Albert Einstein bringing finishing touches in the mathematical description of the Universe, did not have no the most important empirical fact which would connect its theory in a single whole. In search of the answer to this question he was converted to all astronomers of the world: tell, misters, and here Space, it as, on a broader scale, it extends, compressed or abides in balance?
it is valid, Einstein`s which has described all interactions of three dimensional space of the Universe with energy and weight the equations, directly said that the Universe cannot be motionless it can either extend, or be narrowed. But, if Space has actually appeared is static, then it should to bring additional elements which would counterbalance forces of gravitation in harmonous system of the equations. Certainly, such prospect at all did not please Einstein: agree, if gravitation laws with reference to weight - energy were quite obosnovanny for existence of any contradictory forces there were no reasons.
but the majority of astronomers of that time have been convinced of the Universe immovability. And Einstein had to enter reluctantly in system of the equations certain " antigravitational " factor, having designated its Greek letter " ljambda ". This addition necessary only that in system of the equations to make ends meet, has received the name " kosmologicheskaja a constant " subsequently Einstein admitted that its these calculations were " the biggest scientific error ".
this Error became still obidnee and from - that results of supervision of the American astronomer Vesto Melvina Slajfera working in a private observatory of millionaire Persivalja of Lowell at that time were already known, possessed idea to find a civilisation on Mars. For this purpose Lowell has constructed the greatest in the USA an observatory with the greatest in the world a telescope which has managed to it in 20 thousand dollars huge money in the beginning of the last century.
Slajfer with irony concerned life searches on Mars, but has tried to use a telescope for especially scientific problems, in particular has tried to understand, how the next galaxies concerning the Earth move. With that end in view it the first used spektrograf the device decomposing light, getting to a telescope, on a spectrum part. The idea was simple: if to the first in a spectrum part there is a red colour remember: " Each hunter wishes to know... " that, in a case if the star leaves from us, the quantity of waves will be reduced also visible there will be mainly red spectrum. If the star comes nearer, last colour of a spectrum and #150 will prevail; violet, this effect has received in astronomy the name " violet displacement ". Already by the end of 1914 Slajfer, using spektrografom, has spent measurement of movement of all neighbouring galaxies. Also has come to curious conclusions: from 25 next fogs and galaxies the most part 21 rushes from the Earth and only four come nearer to us, and, with huge speed over 2 million kilometres per hour. The report of Slajfera at meeting of the American astronomical society has been risen in applause, and among those who applauded it, there was known astronomer Edvin Powell Hubble.
it is necessary to tell that the glory not so interested misanthrope Slajfera, he almost did not visit scientific parties, preferring to spend time in an observatory. But Hubble who had a reputation in the academic community almost the priest - a star, has understood that behind opening of Slajfera not simply curious facts, but the whole scientific system, capable to move heaven and earth. Hubble, having united results of supervision of Slajfera with the calculations, has drawn a sensational conclusion: galaxies not simply run up, but do it with different speeds. That is the further from us a galaxy, the more its speed, for example, if one escaping galaxy is from us twice further another it and moves twice faster because the space between us also increases. And the explanation to this phenomenon was only one: all these star congestions run up not from each other, but from a certain hypothetical centre of a universe from which all space has arisen.
" it is possible to assimilate galaxies to the confetti which have stuck round a balloon, Hubble wrote. if that starts to be inflated, and then will burst, paper circles will not continue to be moved apart smoothly, and will scatter every which way ". And there was the theory of the Big Bang which has become by an embodiment that explosive for development of a science of time when one opening gave rise to another.
also details dominating nowadays kosmologicheskoj doctrines according to which more than 13,75 mlrd years back absolute anything suddenly any was inexplicably condensed to a status singuljarnosti, that is to a point characterised in unboundedly big density and temperature Later have been counted. Certainly, after an instant this point began to extend promptly this expansion has received the Big Bang name, thanks to it there was our Universe which and extends continuously and cooled today. Also will extend still billions years, all stars will not go out yet and in space again remains nothing.
Alas, the harmonous theory of a Big Bang has cracked in 1924. The Soviet mathematician Alexander Friedman has noticed strangeness which contradicted all calculations in behaviour of the running up Universe: The Universe not simply extends, but extends with escalating speed, and it completely denies all theory of a universe. Agree, for 13 mlrd years inertia of scattering of star congestions should was inevitably oslabnut, and action of gravitational forces to lead shlopyvaniju spaces. But it why - that has not occurred, as Edvin Hubble wrote, galaxies as if were taken away on space by any not clear force. Explanations to this phenomenon did not exist.
then in support of the Big Bang theory other theory and #150 has been formulated; the theory " dark energy " with which in 1937 the American astronomer Frits Tsviki observing in a telescope behind rotation of galaxies in a congestion Hair of Veronica for the first time has faced. So, if stars let out a certain amount of light on weight kg, that, having analysed a star luminescence, it is possible to understand, how much in it contains substances. The strangeness of rotation of that fog which was studied by Tsviki, was that stars on galaxy periphery moved too quickly that the attraction of that weight which turned out in calculations could keep them. In other words, the mathematical model showed that Veronica`s Hair approximately in 400 times massivnee, than it is represented visually. All science fell literally in the face of and then Tsviki has offered the explanation: besides a visible matter of stars weight of a galaxy " makes heavier " still any invisible matter. It is similar to an iceberg: the observer sees only its surface top though the basic part is made by an invisible diving part. And on this invisible matter, which existence it was impossible neither to prove, nor to deny, and has been made responsible for rastaskivanie star galaxies on the Universe. This taking away force has received the name " dark energy ".
But here also there is a question: What it for invisible a matter?
the answer is not present. " Moreover, scientists cannot precisely calculate till now its parametres, the British physicist Michael Bruks in book The Big Question writes. If to calculate dark energy on the basis of supervision over process of a birth of supernew stars turn out it is insignificant small sizes. But when the size of dark energy is calculated by physicists - theorists according to the quantum theory of a field, at them extremely huge surplus, to the contrary, turns out. If to believe their calculations, dark energy is great before that the Universe should scatter for a long time on subnuclear particles in an impulse of super-power acceleration. Also know, scissors between postulates of the theory and experimental data... Are expressed by number with 120 zero ".
the consciousness Push
In the end of the last century was designated the next unsoluble paradox in the Big Bang theory, it is a question of an initial impulse of a birth of the Universe. On a broader scale, to explain words that such singuljarnost, it is simply impossible. It is even more difficult to understand, how from anything that we see now has turned out. " That the Universe has begun scattering from the certain superdense heated point, the impulse of energy of certain size, and #150 was necessary to it; Michael Bruks writes. but it appear it excessively powerful then any forming matter would be smeared by a thin layer, so thin that forces of gravitation could not blind from this " a pancake " a uniform star... If energy of expansion would be, to the contrary, is too small, gravitation would compress substance during a return cycle and the centripetal impulse would accrue together with consolidation, and eventually the Universe fabric " shlopnulas " as astronomers, in the Big collapse " are expressed;.
Nevertheless the Universe exists, though up to the end and not clearly, how. Until recently it was not accepted even to be interested in these inconvenient questions on an origin and Universe life not to undermine science tenets. Well, work of Penrouza and Gurzadjana on this background has sounded as a call to such tenets. And even if conclusions of these scientists as a result will appear wrong, their work already in itself that break which reminds all young scientists: an epoch of fundamental opening, what there who spoke, still has not ended.