Crosses of indestructible friendship
In Museums of the Moscow Kremlin the exhibition " has opened; Treasures of the Maltese order. Nine centuries of ministering to belief and mercy ". It is devoted 20 - letiju restoration of diplomatic relations between order and the Russian Federation, but thus repeatedly reminds that actually gospitalerov and Russia is more senior the order relation for some centuries. SERGEY HODNEV tells.
Odnostolpnuju chamber of the Patriarchal palace where there passes an exhibition not to learn. The person who was not seeing before of this premise, probably, and will understand not at once that is on a broader scale - that in an ancient hall of the moderate sizes, instead of in the whole chain of the modern museum spaces which illusion is created by design where - that mirrors, where - that dexterously located show-windows, where - that its most entertainment exhibits artfully dispersed on an exhibition help.
And in fair quantity of cases these exhibits are brought not from present residence of order (a palace on Roman via Kondotti and a country house on Aventine) and not with belonging it has Malta, and profits from domestic meetings led by the same Museums of the Kremlin. The matter is that Bonaparte, in 1798 shamelessly expelled knights from island which they owned since XVI century because the base for gains of the North Africa was necessary to it. Not that that the general had something personal against gospitalerov, but, having grasped island, operated by a usual principle " a grief defeated ". Neither archives, nor treasury to the expelled knights to take with itself have not resolved, only three main medal relics. (By the way, sultan Sulejman Magnificent, grasped domaltijskoe possession gospitalerov the island Rhodes, has shown bolshee magnanimity, having allowed knights to retire easy with all belongings Also it is the lord of Ottoman empire, some centuries were the main thing supostatom orders.) To knights remains unless moral comfort the French ship which carried the melted medal treasures, has encountered an English squadron and has gone to a bottom so Bonaparte managed the little. For example, precious " a belief dagger " one of symbols of the power of the great master, presented to order the Spanish king Phillip II, it is stored to the present day in Louvre, whence has arrived on the Moscow exhibition.
the Pope has calmed exiles in two new regalia a smart sword and the strange form precious velvet klobukom (both jewelry too have got on an exhibition), but the main comfort, as it is known, waited order at all even out of canonical territory of the Roman church. Pavel I who has become engrossed in reading in adolescence of stories about exploits of knights - ioannitov, was ready to use now all weight of the imperial authority on support of the gentlemen who have lost the Mediterranean house. Also has been selected in great masters.
There is no saying, a leah one only thirst to feel the fellow-heir of crusaders on a straight line has pushed the tsar on this freakish gesture. When you look at a smart portrait of the emperor in all shine of the new found dignity, apparently, that in a crown of the great master both #150; simultaneously and the secular prince, and the ecclesiastic to it something was dreamt also bolshee, any nadkonfessionalnaja tsezarepapistskaja a utopia which echoes are felt and in idea of the Kazan cathedral as remarks of the Vatican basilica of the Saint Peter, and in known intention of the emperor personally to minister a liturgy. And, strictly speaking, all order has agreed with election in masters of a roman catholic brotherhood (which members gave a chasity vow like friars) the orthodox tsar who is married. But memory of Paul at an order management, it is possible to tell, before eyes and until now. Only one of two reserved by the emperor magisterskih crowns remained in Russia, and the second Along with Pavlovsk the press and " a belief dagger " has been returned knights by Alexander I. All regalia now in exhibition show-windows, also it is visible, for example, that on the press the Russian two-headed eagle flaunts.
a policy, the exhibition reminds, and forced the Russian sovereigns to search friendship of the Maltese order earlier. Pavel I, Peter I great-grandfather, has sent to knights the ambassador of boyar Sheremetev (Peter`s letter was saved on Malta, and a portrait of hospitably accepted imperial envoy of the great master in sheremetevskoj to manor Kuskovo), and its well-known mother sent to study as Malta the Russian officers. The strange stories connected with Russia, thus arises two. In - the first, it appears, Dzhakomo Kvarengi is not simple so have charged to reconstruct for needs of order the Vorontsovsky palace (present Suvorovsky school): The architect, having shown to the medal heads family trees, could prove the irreproachably noble origin and has been accepted in knights. In - the second, the exhibition shows the curious document listing christians - the slaves released by order during nice Dardanellsky fight of 1656 among whom there were hundreds Russian. As it is found out, them have treated, have fed up and, carefully having supplied with roadside reading and writing, have sent home.
in case of Kvarengi to knights was not vpervoj to accept in the numbers of masters of the arts " the Portrait of the Maltese gentleman " brushes Caravaggio, brought of gallery Pitti, the exhibition reminds, as enfant terrible the Italian baroque too was a member of order. However, not that that on soul command: to Malta Caravaggio ran after the next criminal incident, and to great master Alofu de Vinjakuru (its armour is exposed there and then) was necessary to strive for the artist before the father. But soon Caravaggio ran from island, and offended in the best feelings gospitalery immediately have excluded it from order and have damned.
but if to patronise arts to order already not from a hand, the help to patients and sufferers on - former its main employment. To tell, the only thing more precisely if to consider that problems of struggle with incorrect now look a little irrelevant. The legal part of events surrounding an exhibition has underlined once again it. In a XIX-th century great masters sent nagradnye medal crosses to the Russian emperors almost without fail as a congratulation on crowning. But now the great master fra Matthew Festing who have arrived to Moscow, the head of the state did not begin to award, and has arrived kompromissno, having handed over a knightly cross to the high-ranking official, but thus to the to a certain extent to the colleague eks - the head of the Ministry of Emergency Measures Sergey Shojgu.