Not time for trade
last week Russia has definitively accessed to WTO: federation Advice ratified the report on joining to this organisation. An observer " the Authorities " Sergey MINAEV considers that thought up 30 years ago the WTO in the conditions of present waves of world financial crisis looks not too actual.
the idea to create the WTO has appeared 1982 when in Geneva there has passed a ministerial meeting of participants of the General agreement under tariffs and trade (GATT). This agreement has been signed in 1948 and has fixed results of the negotiations which have begun in 1946 of 23 countries which have agreed to refuse from entered in the beginning 1930 - h years of protectionist custom duties. (All during negotiations it has been made by 45 thousand tariff concessions for the sum of $10 mlrd: decrease in tariffs has concerned the one fifth world trade of that time.) At the Geneva meeting the decision to begin a new round of the international foreign trade negotiations which has received the name of the Uruguayan round was accepted and has crowned by WTO creation.
the hardest debt crisis which was tested by developing countries became an occasion to such initiative. Just in 1982 Mexico declared that is incapable to serve the external debt, and other Latin American countries have shown readiness to follow to its example. By bankrupts these countries be recognised could not, but absolutely real threat to become bankrupts has arisen before the American banks which gave to the Latin American countries huge credits. And all further events have been caused just by fear of banks of the USA before bankruptcy. They, naturally, have ceased to give to the Latin American countries new credits, but have agreed on re-structuring of debts and a delay of payments. And the Latin American countries have expressed readiness to take part in the international foreign trade negotiations to develop the export, to limit import and to save up money for return of debts. As the African countries have arrived.
Here it is necessary to notice that in connection with debt crisis of developing countries for the first time after crash of system of fixed rates of currencies in 1970 - e years a visible role in the world began to play IMF. The western creditors both #150; banks and the governments have started to use fund recommendations when solved, a leah it is necessary to give to this or that debitor country a delay in payment of a debt or new credits. The favorable conclusion of IMF depended on performance by debitor countries of standard programs of stabilisation the economy developed by fund.
the IMF avoided to make too rigid demands to the largest debtors of the American banks (first of all to the Latin American countries), without wishing to call their discontent dangerous to banks. And here to the African countries which should basically not to banks, and to the western governments (as could not involve banks in considerable percent), the IMF of indulgence did not give and insisted on immediate carrying out of market reforms and refusal of socialist experiments, otherwise threatening to refuse the next tranche of the credit. As one of elements of reforms of IMF considered participation in negotiations of the Uruguayan round about WTO creation.
thus, exaggeration will not tell that the WTO has been created for the Latin American and African countries under the pressure of the American banks and IMF. As the American researcher Deni Rodrik, " specified; the Uruguayan round and creation of the WTO a turning point for developing countries. Till now these countries did not show any interest to multilateral trading negotiations and practically did not submit to rules GATT. It it is no wonder: developing countries have been quite satisfied by the position. The industrial countries unilaterally gave them trading privileges, and arrangements between the industrial countries about mutual decrease in the tariffs, reached in the hardest struggle, automatically extended and on developing countries. And here position has changed. Creation of the WTO this first foreign trade action in which developing countries have taken active part ".
As the employee of the WTO Sam Lejrd, " underlines; really unexpectedly active participation of developing countries was unique line of the Uruguayan round. Certainly, pressure has served its purpose from the industrial countries demanding that developing countries have started to incur any obligations also at last. However another is more important: developing countries have understood that active participation in creation of the WTO the unique way to merit the serious relation in the world and to achieve additional cost benefits ". At last, the Chilean researcher Manuel Agosin right after in 1995 has underlined WTO creations: " the WTO with its principle " all or anything " it is not meaningful for the industrial countries which and have already joined so a long time all existing international trading agreements. These the organisation makes sense only for developing countries which should incur for the first time the concrete obligations dictated by trading agreements ".
it is necessary to notice that the list of agreements which have been urged to sign developing countries (and which are till now a WTO basis), sounds boringly and rutinno. Are brightly allocated there unless the agreement on preloading inspection of the goods or the agreement on procedures of import licensing. Essentially and that in 1980 - e years of the USSR also was the large debtor of the West and the visible participant of debt crisis of developing countries, but to creation of the WTO neither the American banks, nor IMF it to force and could not.
now in the world a little that reminds 1982. The hardest debt crisis is tested not by developing countries or Russia, and the European countries and the USA which were initiators of creation of the WTO and with which Russia carried on long-term and intense negotiations for the introduction into this organisation. Questions on opening of the markets or on preloading inspection of the goods have obviously faded into the background. The next round of negotiations within the limits of the WTO when developing countries agreed on the next decrease in import duties in exchange for subsidising reduction by the European countries of the agriculture, now looks not especially actual: the European countries not so understand, whence it to take money for this subsidising.
WTO existence has already led to paradoxical results. It was originally supposed that developing countries within the limits of this organisation will cease to be fond excessively of foreign trade state regulation, developing importozameshchajushchuju the industry, or is artificial encouraging industrial export. It is impossible to tell that developing countries have completely refused state intervention in foreign trade. But, as it has appeared, the problem at all in it, and in ability of the industrial countries where the state does not interfere with foreign trade, impetuous rates to increase import and almost to export nothing. Leah have opened the markets developing countries, for the industrial countries now not too important.
Developing countries within the limits of the WTO have assumed liability to protect intellectual property rights. However now surprises nobody that on charge in infringement of these rights realisation in Great Britain planshetnikov Samsung under company Apple claim is forbidden by the London court, instead of the WTO. Because now not the countries submit claims about infringement of the rights, and the separate companies, and the companies international. For example, Apple makes nothing in territory of the USA: all manufacture is concentrated in China.
globalisation of manufacture and trade has resulted in world financial crisis 2008 - 2009 within the limits of the WTO, and financial globalisation, the direct relation to this organisation not having not. And during a present second wave of world financial crisis of the power of the industrial countries the WTO do not remember, but only think, what the new organisation to create in financial sphere. Europeans make the decision on creation of the bank union and consider plans of association of the European finance, believing that manufacture and trade depend not on customs or preloading inspection, and from banks and state budgets. As to Russia, for it now important one: a leah the world prices for oil which are not connected with WTO membership in any way will fail in the conditions of the second wave of crisis.