Two hundred years ago Napoleon has begun war with Russia, and in two years Alexander`s victorious army I entered into Paris. Sevastopol 70 years ago has fallen, German tanks were torn to Stalingradu. Two Patriotic wars — in what their similarity and distinction?
Russia waged war in the beginning with revolutionary, and then and with bonapartistskoj France since 1792. Wared in Italy and Switzerland, in Austria and Prussia. In 1807 Alexander I and Napoleon unexpectedly become allies. Frenchmen receive freedom of hands in the Western and the Central Europe, Russian in the south and the north. In 1809 Russia wins Finland, in 1812 - m Bessarabia. Frenchmen have defeated Austria, occupied Spain, have intruded in Portugal.
Hitlerites were considered as the main foreign policy opponent of the USSR since 1933. The Fuhrer did not hide that " strategic space " for the German people lies in the east, and Komintern The most effective tool " world zhidomasonskogo plot ". Struggle against fascism becomes the main thing a subject of the Soviet propagation and foreign policy. In 1936 - 1939 Soviet and German " volunteers " war with each other on the Pyrenees.
in the autumn of 1939, after the Moscow visit of Ribbentropa, all changes. The USSR easy observes of how Germans win Poland, Belgium, Holland, France, Denmark and Norway. Soviet Union attaches, with the consent of Germany, the Western Ukraine and the Western Belarus, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Baltic and a part of Finland.
And in the Tilsit world of 1807, and in the pact of Molotova Ribbentropa 1939 - go there were internal contradictions.
Russia did not suffer defeats since 1711: Tilsit was conceived as a shame, the nobility was indignant. Continental blockade which Russia in 1807 has been urged to join, undermined treasury: Public revenues have decreased twice; the paper rouble has depreciated in three.
Tilsit has appeared so fragile, as well as the contract with Hitler. The agreement has been constructed on incorrect preconditions. Stalin believed that the Second World War will turn, as well as previous, to war item, will be tightened for many long years. And Soviet Union, having received a peace respite, will strike eventually powerful blow in back of the fainted Germany. When it was found out that Germans have easily finished with all Europe, except for England, the situation has resolutely exchanged. By 1940 there were changes in the Soviet official propagation " Work " prints Ilya Erenburg`s sympathetic reportings from France, Alexander Nevsky conquers dogs Eisenstein`s film of 1938 - the knights who have attacked to Russia from the West.
thanks to brilliant work Russian rezidentury in Paris (it two future ministers headed: Foreign affairs Charles Nesselrode and the military man Alexander Tchernyshov) Alexander I knew about preparing French intrusion since March, 1810. Reasons at Napoleon were the same that later at Hitler. Russia remained the unique potential ally of Great Britain on continent. Napoleon`s failures in Spain demanded powerful and unconditional victory. And Hitler needed event which would smooth down defeat in " to fight over England ".
the Soviet investigation in Hitlerite Germany after defeat in 1937 worked worse, than Russian in Napoleonic Paris. Stalin did not represent exact term of an attack of nazis. But since autumn of 1940, after a failure of negotiations of Molotova in Berlin (requirements of the USSR left for all reasonable measures on the control requirement over the Black Sea passages and definitive joining of Finland Russia was refused), the secretary general understood, war with Germans is inevitable.
the Scythian plan
Russian tactics of conducting war with Napoleon often name " the Scythian plan ". Actually, this term was mentioned for the first time by the emperor of Frenchmen. On memoirs of the French brigade general Phillip - Fields de Segjura, on September, 17th, 1812, looking from the Kremlin at the flaring Moscow, Napoleon has told: " What terrible show! They set fire to it... What determination! What people! It Scythians! "
the history told by Gerodotom Meant known then to each formed person. When the huge army of persian tsar Darija has intruded in Prichernomorsky steppes, Scythians, destroying wells and foodstuffs sources, have enticed persians into the wild steppes where have ruined.
the idea of that the main ally of Russia in possible war with Napoleon is its immense space, has arisen at Alexander I in 1810. In conversation with the Austrian Charge d`Affaires in Petersburg count Sen - Zhulenom in August 1811 - go he spoke: " In existing circumstances defensive strategy suits only. If Frenchmen attack, it is necessary to depart far inland, transforming the left space into wilderness. The peace population is a pity, of course, but the alternative is not present ". About the same the Russian emperor wrote to the Prussian king: " Carefully to avoid the big battles and to organise the longest operational lines ".
Right after purposes by the Minister of War, in the beginning of March, 1810, Barclay - de - Tolli has submitted to Alexander I " the Note about protection of the western boundaries of Russia ". Idea of the commander: to accept battle with the main forces of the enemy to the east of Dnepr and Dvina means to doom them to defeat. River boundaries for time which has remained prior to the beginning of war should be strengthened strong strong holds. But by 1812 to be protected on a line Dnepr Dvina it was impossible: Strong holds and have not constructed.
at last, has most precisely described a forthcoming operations procedure the Russian military scout lieutenant colonel Peter Chujkevich: " the destruction of Russian armies in decisive battle against Frenchmen could have fatal consequences for all fatherland. Loss of several areas should not frighten us wherefore integrity of the state consists in integrity of its army... Evasion from decisive battles, guerrilla war by flying groups, especially in back of an operational enemy line, a non-admission to furazhirovki and resoluteness throughout war: an essence of a measure for Napoleon new, for Frenchmen tiresome and their allies intolerant ".
the Scythian plan though has led to victory, was in the summer and in the autumn of 1812 is extremely unpopular, because has given to Napoleon half of Russia, including Moscow. With deviation reproached first of all commander-in-chief Barclay of that time - de - Tolli. As Alexander Pushkin wrote later: " Its deviation which nowadays is clear and necessary action, seemed at all to that ".
it is clear that in Russian army there were also supporters of the plan offensive unexpected advancing blow to Poland (then vassal to Napoleon duchy Warsaw). But intending for similar approach 2 - I Barclay`s army more than five times conceded to Frenchmen in number; she should war on the Polish earth where the population tested hatred to Russian; and, at last, the Napoleonic army has been located in strong strong holds. Besides from the north over Russia Prussia, from the south and #150 hung; Austria, both formally registered on Napoleon`s allies. Therefore the idea of a preventive attack has been doomed to failure.
Russian receded from border to Tarutina, destroying all on the way: " Russian operated against us, as when - that parthians against Romans under the command of their commander Krassa " remembered one of the French participants of a campaign.
certainly, was bitter to leave the native earth. Ingenious Barclay became a victim of public opinion. But as wrote later Klauzevits: " If Russian at that acquaintance to its [deviation] by consequences what they have now, it was necessary to undertake again it under the same conditions they voluntary and systematically would do all that in 1812 has been undertaken generally involuntarily ".
Stalin (as well as Bagration against Napoleonic armies) first was going to put on vermahtu a preventive attack. But Germans have outstripped it. As a result the Red Army has quickly appeared in the same situation, as Russian armies in 1812. Only for Russian army of that time zamanivanie the opponent deep into to the territory became a part in advance a deliberate plan, and the Red Army receded randomly, continuously losing armies and arms.
But as the fates decree that Scythian plan which has helped to defeat Napoleon, has appeared effective and in war with Hitler.
on July, 3rd, 1941 Stalin, being converted to the people, suggests to follow the lead of ancestors and to pass to scorched earth tactics: " At the urged withdrawal of parts of Red Army it is necessary to steal all the mobile train, not to leave to the enemy of any steam locomotive, any car, not to leave any kg of bread, fuel litre. All valuable property, including nonferrous metals, bread and fuel which cannot be taken out, should, certainly to be destroyed.
in the areas occupied with the enemy it is necessary to create guerrilla groups, horse and the pedestrian, to create diversionary groups for struggle against parts of enemy army, for kindling of guerrilla war everywhere and everywhere, for explosion of bridges, roads, damage of telephone and cable communication, an arson of woods, warehouses, wagon trains. In the grasped areas to create intolerable conditions for the enemy and all its helpers, to pursue and destroy them continually, to break all their actions ".
on November, 17th, 1941 there was an order of the Rate of the General headquarters, obliging " at the urged withdrawal of ours to withdraw with itself the Soviet population and it is obligatory to destroy all without an exception settlements that the opponent could not use them ".
In back evacuated 1523 factories, 10 million civilians. But losses and #150 were huge also; 4 million 200 thousand soldiers and commanders.
with the beginning of great deviation Stalin even more often underlines similarity of two wars. For the first time a word " Domestic " it has been said by V.Molotovym in a broadcast appeal to the Soviet people in the first day of war. On May, 20th, 1942 there are Patriotic war orders.
the Ambassador in Great Britain Ivan Majsky remembers the words said by Stalin in December, 1941:
" a leah It is possible to consider, what the basic line of strategy in our war and in war of 1812 is approximately identical if to take, at least, events sew wars for the first half a year? Not absolutely. Kutuzov`s deviation was passive deviation, to Borodino it anywhere did not render serious resistance to Napoleon. Our deviation it is active defence, we try to detain the enemy on each possible boundary. The general between both deviations was that they were not in advance planned, and the urged deviations ".
Hitler and Napoleon`s Persuasive comparison was present and at the Soviet propagation, for example at Samuel Marshak: " Smolensk I since the childhood know about it. Through Smolensk snow the country my native drove regiments of the broken enemy. So was in old time, in the old days, now again enemies run. That not Napoleon`s decline, and it is simple to Hitler kaput ".
Destiny of Moscow
Napoleon`s Generals analyzed the reasons of defeat of Swedes near Poltava and have decided to finish Russia a direct stroke to Moscow. Germans studied the reasons of defeat of Frenchmen. Including experience of occupation of Russian cities.
Stalin has ordered to mine the capitals, preliminary having taken out therefrom all valuable, necessary for war. On September, 24th, 1941 explosions of in advance enclosed radio-controlled bombs had been destroyed all centre of Kiev. Explosions rattled in Odessa occupied by Germans and Kharkov.
on October, 8th, 1941 Stalin has given the order about " carrying out of special actions ": a mining not only distant approaches to Moscow and strategic objects, but also all lines on which Germans could pass to the Kremlin, the underground, hostels, the governmental buildings, factories. In Leningrad security officers carried out " Plan D " on which, in case of city employment, on air should fly up how much - nibud strategically important constructions, bridges through Neva and the Baltic fleet.
similarity endured with " War and peace " was evident in 1941 to the most different people. Those years an opera " War and peace " Sergey Prokofiev starts to write. It inspires hopes and amazes with parallels. And Tolstoy`s novel read at the front, in evacuation. And idea that Stalin, like Kutuzov, has meaningly enticed aggressors in a fatal trap, heats both the population, and the leader.
thus, Patriotic war of 1812 became an alibi for Stalin. And everything that occurred to Stalingrada, turned to the thought over preparation of the counterattack which have ruined Hitler.
but two Patriotic wars differed in a root. Kutuzov did not drive Russian soldiers to senseless battles, did not use protecting groups, did not leave all European part under Hitler`s heel. Napoleon did not have army Vlasova.
Choosing between Hitler and Stalin, Russian people have chosen Stalin; other way at it it was not simple. In 1812 Russian soldiers did not have fluctuations: to surrender in a captivity, to run across on the party of the opponent, to leave from fight by a way a self-arrow.