Rus News Journal

Russian & World News. Business, Politics, Opinion, Science, Technology, Style, Sports. Part 30043

The Office of Public Prosecutor has revealed a conclusion of actives in " Luzniki "

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Rates of loss of a biodiversity of the Earth give the grounds to consider that the Sixth mass extinction of kinds has already come

Scientists have invented a bicycle which the Group of researchers of Delftsky technical university (Holland) does not fall

The expediency of industrial working out of slate gas regionalno is caused
Oil and gas branch it is considered one of the most capital-intensive. The high competition compels active players to put the huge sums of research work, and the large investment companies in the market - to contain staff of the analysts specialising on forecasts, connected with oil and gas. It would Seem, all here so is well studied that we have not enough chances to miss though something a little - malski considerable. Nevertheless, anybody from analysts has not managed to predict sharp growth of extraction of slate gas in America - present economic - a technological phenomenon which in 2009 - the m has deduced to year the USA in leaders on volumes of extracted gas, has cardinally changed a policy of gas supply of the USA, has transformed home market of gas from scarce in self-sufficient and can most affect seriously alignment of forces in world power.

it is interesting that only with very big stretch it is possible to name a phenomenon of industrial extraction of slate gas technological revolution or scientific break: scientists know about gas deposits in slates from the XIX-th century beginning, the first commercial chink in slate layers has been drilled in the USA in 1821, long before the first-ever oil drilling, and technologies applied today are run in by experts some decades. However until recently industrial working out of huge stocks of slate gas was considered economically inexpedient.

the main difference and the main complexity at extraction of slate gas is a low permeability gazosoderzhashchih slate layers (the crushed sand which has turned to hardened clay): Hydrocarbon practically does not filter through dense and very firm breed, therefore the debit of a traditional vertical chink it appears very small and deposit working out becomes economically unprofitable. In 70 - e years of the last century the geological prospecting has revealed in territory of the USA four huge slate structures containing enormous stocks of gas (Barnett, Haynesville, Fayetteville and Marcellus), but industrial extraction has been recognised by unprofitable, and researches in the field of creation of corresponding technologies have interrupted after falling of the prices for oil in 80 - h.

To idea of extraction of gas from slate layers to the USA have returned only in 90 - h years against growth of consumption of gas and the growing prices for energy carriers. Instead of numerous remunerative vertical chinks researchers have applied so-called horizontal drilling: On the way to gazonosnomu to a layer the drill deviates a vertical on 90 degrees and passes hundreds metres along a layer, increasing a zone of contact to breed. More often the curvature of a trunk of a chink is reached by application of a flexible boring column or the special configurations providing rejecting force on a chisel and asymmetric destruction of a face.

for increase of efficiency of a chink the technology of plural hydroruptures of a layer is used: in a horizontal chink under big (to 70 MPa, that is approximately 700 atmospheres) pressure zakachivaetsja the mix of water, sand and special chemical reactants which breaks off a layer, destroys dense breed and partitions of gas pockets and unites gas stocks. Pressure of water causes occurrence of cracks, and grains of sand which are exhausted in these cracks by a liquid stream, disturb to the subsequent " shlopyvaniju " breeds also do a slate layer nontight for gas.

Industrial working out of slate gas in the USA became profitable thanks to several additional factors. The first is a presence of the supermodern equipment, materials with the highest wear resistance and the technologies allowing very precisely to position trunks and cracks of hydroruptures. Such technologies became accessible even to the small and average gas companies after the innovative boom connected with a rise in prices for energy carriers and increase of demand (and, hence, the prices) on the equipment to the oil and gas industry.

the second factor - relative malonaselennost the territories adjoining to deposits of slate gas: getters can burit numerous chinks on enormous sites without continuous coordination with the authorities of nearby settlements.

the third, most important factor - open access to the developed pipeline system of the USA. This access is regulated by the legislation, and even the small and average companies which have extracted gas, on transparent conditions can get access to a pipe and finish gas to the end user at the reasonable price.

profitability of industrial extraction of slate gas has a strongly pronounced binding to economy of that region where it is extracted. Deposits of slate gas are found out not only in the North America, but also in Europe (including East), Australia, India, China. However industrial working out of these deposits can appear is complicated from - for gustonaselennosti (India, China), absence of a transport infrastructure (Australia) and strict norms of ecological safety (Europe). There are reconnoitered deposits of slates and in Russia largest of which is Leningrad - a part of scale Baltic pool, but the cost price of gas workings out considerably exceeds extraction cost " traditional " gas.

Thus to say that the boom of industrial extraction of slate gas can be thrown from the North America to Europe or Asia, it is not necessary yet. Predicted stocks are non-comparable even: according to the European Center of power safety (EUCERS), in the North America of the reconnoitered stocks of 22,2 % of slate gas, in the Central Asia and China - 14,5 %, in the Eastern Europe and the CIS - 7 % and in the Western Europe - only 3,7 %. It is not necessary to dismiss and ecological aspect: recently France became the first European country which has officially forbidden application of technology of hydrorupture of a layer at extraction of hydrocarbons from - for potential environmental problems. For prohibition the lower chamber of the French parliament has voted, the senate will consider the bill in June.

the Most weighed position concerning prospects of extraction of slate gas at session of the commission on affairs of economy of the senate of Poland the main geologist of the country, the deputy minister on affairs of environment doctor Henrik - Jatsek Yezersky: " If someone now asks me, how many in Poland slate gas, I will answer - a zero. Yet will the geological documentation confirming quantity of slate gas is given, it is possible to consider that such resource in Poland is not present ". On it informs news portal WNP.

the Important question: whether mass industrial extraction of slate gas in the USA threatens economic safety of Russia? Yes, the agiotage round slate gas has changed a parity of forces in the gas market, but, basically, it concerns spotovyh, that is the exchange, momentary prices for gas. The basic players in this market - manufacturers and suppliers szhizhennogo gas while large Russian manufacturers gravitate to the market of long-term contracts which should not lose in the near future stability.

while the adjusted and reliable system so-called " pipeline pricing " on which Gazprom (huge reserves of traditional gas - transport system - the heavy user) for the Western Europe more preferably, than risky and not cheap working out of own deposits of slate gas works. But the cost price of extraction of slate gas in Europe (its stocks are estimated in 12 - 15 trillion cubic metre) and will define the European prices for gas in the nearest 10 - 15 years.

Valery Kondakov


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