85 years ago, in 1927, Stalin`s old acquaintances from Tiflisa have insistently asked it to return their pension accumulation which have been selected by the Soviet government. An observer " the Authorities " Evgenie Zhirnov understood this instructive history.
" It appears, I a miracle - the athlete "
on June, 8th, 1926 in Tiflissky main railway workshops there was an event which hardly later would name epoch-making, on a meeting with workers there has arrived Stalin. A choice of a place for performance before representatives of a class - predominant force proletarians the leader has chosen not casually. After all his career of the professional revolutionary has begun with the organisation of an underground circle among workers of these railway workshops in 1898.
However the meeting of old acquaintances has very quickly turned in such verbose and sladkorechivoe Stalin`s celebration, as though all have gathered to celebrate its anniversary. The hero of the festivities soon has not sustained and has made reciprocal speech:
" Should you tell, companions, on conscience that I have not merited a good few of those praises which here were distributed to my address. It appears, I both the hero of October, and the head of Communist Party of Soviet Union, and the head of Komintern, a miracle - the athlete and anything you like. All is trifles, companions, and absolutely unnecessary exaggeration. In such tone speak usually over a coffin of the deceased revolutionary. But I am not going to die yet ".
During that moment Stalin did not guess that preuvelichenno praise it not only in view of traditions of the Caucasian hospitality but also to solve one important both an urgent problem About the pre-revolutionary pension accumulation, which workers did on an extent not one ten years. Stalin has listened to those whom just named the teachers: " I really was and I remain one of pupils of advanced working railway masterful Tiflisa ". But anything to them has not responded. And the advanced workers, having waited for more year of result, in November, 1927 have charged to the most competent both legally grounded companion Adam`s to write the letter to Moscow with an explanation and specification of the request.
" dear Joseph Vissarionovich! it was told in the letter. in your stay in Tiflise, during visitation of Tiflissky your name of workshops, we, railway workers and employees as workshops, and depots have submitted to you the request, in which asked to assist to give the end to a question stirring us About return of our petty economies which we, workers and employees, an arduous toil the earned provided against a rainy day by savings through pension cash desk and life insurance at this pension cash desk. On an explanation of Narkomfina of the USSR, our money is listed in the treasury income in 1918 ".
With the similar request to the country leaders the same year also the former general - lieutenant Konstantin Lukich Gilchevsky time and again was converted (see article " did not want to order predators and to kill predators " in " the Authorities " N22 for 2011) which wrote on August, 12th, 1927 to the chairman of the Central Electoral Committee of the USSR to Kalinin:
" the Citizen the Chairman Michael Ivanovich.
In April of this year I have written A.I.Rykovu`s letter about emeritalnoj to pension. In June from a reception of owls. The people. A clod. RSFSR was received by the superbureaucratic answer that the pension is cancelled and that if I have lost work capacity, I can be converted into social security.
It is possible to cancel all, even human life, but for this purpose any bases nevertheless are necessary. The government by analogy should cancel both gold, and diamond funds and other mammons which guaranteed obligations of the Russian state and including obligations on payment emeritalnoj pensions.
forty years from my maintenance were made 6 % deductions in the were grew. The state exchequer. Thus, in resignation I have been provided by insurance pension; besides, after my death the wife and the daughter would be provided also.
if the government basically does not recognise pension it is necessary and to give out nobody them, and all to translate to social security. Equality so equality for all. Meanwhile the government has entered pensions, both personal, and ordinary, for service, and these pensions very many stand out under the patronage. Meanwhile earlier revolutionaries it is a lot of and loudly cried out about protektsijah, and now it exists in all breadth. I know that in Tiflise many receive pension under the patronage. I can result to you and the fact in Moscow. There there lives my acquaintance 80 - the summer aged man, the former general Kjun, relative Kameneva who has obtained to it pension in 50 rbl. a month. Will tell that it ministered at Bolsheviks, but also I in 21 - m and 22 - m too ministered years here at Bolsheviks, but to me from cheap calculations of pension have not given because have been declared that those who is liquidated after 24 - go year " have the right to pension only;.
were dissatisfied both many other former officers and the generals who were not waring against the Soviet power, but remained on an old age of years without a penny behind soul. And indignation of military men and railwaymen could be understood, after all the high-grade system of memory provision of pensions was created in the Russian empire first of all for them.
" Beneficial measure "
In the end of 1850 - h years when after much debate and altercations of various groups of the Russian elite country reform has started to accept accurate outlines, became obvious that after clearing of serfs and change of all way of life small estate or not so noblemen not having the landed property to the greatest degree will suffer. And among them army officers and the generals as old as Adam ministering to major, if not the main support of a throne. Incomes from estates could not provide with it after resignation of worthy existence any more. So necessary find other source of maintenance of their comfortable old age.
for this reason Alexander II 17 has signed of April, 1859 the decree about change of financial position of army officers and generals in which it was told:
" Improvement of the maintenance of generals, staff and ober - officers of all Our Army made a subject of constant cares of Blissful memory Of our Parent. Executing so close and To our heart desire, We recognised as possible to increase the maintenance of employees in armies, on following main bases:
1) to Add the salary to all ranks from the ensign to the general inclusive, on again confirmed sheets.
2) to appoint table money younger a staff - to officers, company and eskadronnym to commanders and chiefs of invalid commands, under the special schedule... "
however where bolshee value had the innovation entered by the same decree emeritalnaja cash desk for payment of pensions in addition to that relied from treasury:
" Together with maintenance improvement on service, wishing to put the basis to existence maintenance in resignation of the merited ranks military - overland department and families their establishment special emeritalnoj cash desks from which additional pensions and grants to defined on position from the State Exchequer subsequently could be appointed, We recognised as useful to begin simultaneously, i.e. with 1 - go May of this year, and the deduction of six percent assumed in marked cash desk ".
Thus the emperor has decided to facilitate to officers and generals burden of accumulation of additional pension:
" And that the beneficial measure of establishment emeritury could be extended to all employees in military department, without any reduction of their present maintenance, We have appointed the necessary sum for the reference in emeritalnuju cash desk in the form of an increase of six percent to those icon settings of the maintenance which are not increased on the basis of this Decree ".
Moreover to provide a new pension fund with the capital and to give the chance to it to save up faster means for payment of additional pensions, Alexander II has brought in emeritalnuju cash desk of overland department huge the then money 7,5 million rbl. And in addition to it has ordered to the State exchequer garantirovanno to pay for using the capital of cash desk not less than 4 % annual and strictly to watch safety of means. And the next years it found all new sources for replenishment emeritalnoj cash desks so for five years its capital has increased without small twice.
By order of the emperor the Ministry of Defence after the decree about emeritalnoj to cash desk has started at once drawing up of rules on which basis it should operate. For example, by the order of the Minister of War from May, 1st, 1859 it was defined, from what kinds of monetary payments which in Russian army was much From dining rooms to nagradnyh for participation in separate battles, it is necessary to raise 6 %. Besides, the order of payments emeritalnyh pensions to widows and children of the lost and died participants of cash desk, and also the officers who have sustained heavy injuries and the generals who have lost ability to continue service has been established. Besides, to the same order have limited a circle of army ranks which were supposed to participation in accumulation of additional pension:
" are not subject to any deductions in advantage emeritalnoj cash desks and do not participate at all in emeriture:
Irreguljarnye of an army.
Persons of a ministry.
the Bottom ranks.
Professory and uchiteli military - the educational institutions, having civil ranks.
Ranks of the Finnish armies, until drawing up of new position about their monetary contentment ".
it is natural, officers and generals Caucasian and other irreguljarnyh parts of Russian army remained are dissatisfied with their similar exception of the general rule. The discontent with separate points of Position about emeritalnoj to cash desk was voiced also by other army commanders. However contrary to Russian tradition nobody began to change immediately rules to please that or other dissatisfied. Alexander II, probably, has considered that business too serious to alter something in a hurry. But thus he did not want also an unbounded tightening of the decision become painfull questions. That is why the emperor has ordered to appoint every ten years the special commission on check emeritalnoj cash desks to which was recommended to discuss all arising complaints and to find ways to their prevention henceforth.
For example, in an operating time of the first such commission appointed in May, 1870, there were fierce disputes between the scientists invited as committee-men and advisers. But as a result the emperor has confirmed the changes presented to it in rules of work of cash desk among which there was following:
" 1) to Make obligatory participants emeritalnoj cash desks of all ranks military - the overland department, receiving the maintenance under estimates of the Ministry of Defence.
2) to cancel manufacture of deductions of 6 % at delivery of awards and grants at a rate of less than 150 roubles ".
And after an estimation given by the commission of financial activity of cash desk, Alexander II has countenanced the decision on increase in the size emeritalnoj pensions: " Existing icon settings emeritalnyh pensions to increase by 33 % ".
As a result there was accurate enough and clear scheme of payment of additional pension. Its size depended on a rank at retirement, lengths of service on army service and duration of payments of the concrete person in emeritalnuju cash desk. Count on pension those who has served in officer and generalships not less than 25 years could only and brought the contribution to cash desk not less than 5 years. More considerable payments followed those who has served more than 35 years.
the minimum additional pension for 25 years of service and from 5 till 12 years of participation in cash desk made 25 % emeritalnogo the icon setting corresponding to its rank. A maximum full emeritalnyj the icon setting the one who was in a system more than 35 years received and all these years strictly brought payments.
certainly, constantly there were officers and the generals, dissatisfied a darkness or other rules on which the cash desk military - overland department operated emeritalnaja. Some of rules corrected, to another in the course of time got used and started to conceive as something self-evident.
it was more important another. Gradually all have started to realise that Alexander II not only has provided a comfortable old age to command structure of army, but also has created the most powerful stimulus that all commanders ministered long and faultlessly. After all early dismissal from service automatically conducted to deprivation not only the basic, but also additional pension. So many ministers and commanding persons have wanted to create similar system in the departments.
" 10 % from the sums which are due to Councillors "
gradually own emeritalnye cash desks have appeared at military seamen, engineers of means of communication and the officials subordinated to the Ministry of Justice, and also at zemskih the authorities which have arisen during reforms of Alexander II. Rules of work of such cash desks were under construction on the general principles, but founders brought the points considering features of concrete service in the charter of each of them.
So, in the charter emeritalnoj cash desks of a zemstvo of the Ryazan province created in 1885, it was established that pension payment in 25 % emeritalnogo the icon setting begins after 12 years of service, and for each next year services the pension increases by 5 % of the icon setting. So maximum it was possible to reach after 27 years besporochnoj services. Besides, Ryazan zemskie figures have established some categories emeritalnyh icon settings least of which was 120 rbl. a year, maximum 800 rbl.
Different departments differed also replenishment sources emeritalnyh cash desks. From participants of cash desks almost everywhere raised 6 %. But the Ryazan zemstvo has decided to deduct in it also 3 % of all gathering gathering by it and taxes, and also has entered position according to which all penalties by which officials were punished for derelictions of duty zemskie, went in emeritalnuju cash desk into the charter.
Zemsky employees of the Moscow province, created emeritalnuju cash desk in 1894, have entered point which ordered to all married participants of cash desk to pay in addition to 6 % of 2 more % as in case of their death their spouse could apply for pension into its charter, or in writing refuse its future pension and not pay additional gathering.
the Moscow zemstvo also obliged members of cash desk to pay 10 % from all nagradnyh money as were called then awards, and in Smolensk zemskuju emeritalnuju with same nagradnyh 5 % were required to bring cash desk. Thus, however, Smolensk zemskie employees should pay in cash desk the considerable sums at increase in a post.
different cash desks established various age limit for transfer in the numbers from 45 till 50 years. However, despite all differences, to the main things remains one to receive emeritalnuju pension it was possible only for long and qualitative work.
After state and zemskimi establishments the best means for stimulation long and a faithful service private enterprises began to get. And some of them did not feel sorry means for literally achieving an object in view. Shareholders and councillors of the Moscow discount bank, for example, in 1895 have created for the employees exclusive conditions for accumulation of pensions:
" cash desk Fixed capital is made by 30 886 roubles deducted by shareholders at General meeting, were on April, 9th, 1895... In annual incomes of cash desk arrive: 1) Protsenty on osnovnyj the capital and on all incomes. 2) 10 % from the sums which are due, according to the charter, annually to Councillors. 3) 3 % from the salary of employees in bank if the icon setting does not exceed 900 rbl. a year; 5 % if the icon setting exceeds 900 rbl. a year, and 7 % if the icon setting exceeds 3000 rbl. a year. 4) 3 % with given out emeritalnoju kassoju pensions.) able to be 5 deductions from bank profits on zaslushanii annual reports in General meetings of shareholders. 6) voluntary gifts in advantage emeritalnoj cash desks in the form of offerings or gift under the will. 7) the discount bank deducts in advantage emeritalnoj cash desks annually the sum equal to deductions from the salary of employees ".
the sizes of payments and term of a period of service to pension not less surprisingly looked:
" Terms on reception emeritalnoj pensions are defined the following: 1) twenty years of service for reception emeritalnoj pensions at a rate of half of average icon setting of the salary and 2) twenty five years for reception emeritalnoj pensions at a rate of two thirds of average icon setting of the salary... The size of pension for 20 years should not exceed thousand five hundred roubles, and for 25 years two thousand roubles ".
the care of the most devoted employees of bank Amazed also: " the Persons who have arrived on service in Bank till January, 8th, 1870 (the opening day of actions of bank), from their salary are released from deductions of percent ". It turned out that these employees of bank could receive immediately emeritalnuju pension of the maximum size, without having spent any own copeck. However, the obligatory spoon of tar has got to a honey butt and #150 also; pension rules did not extend on a housekeeping staff of bank door-keepers, drivers and other local employees.
other private enterprises which have based emeritalnye cash desks adhered to the Similar principle also. Actually, anything strange in such approach was not. To attach for a long time to a work place it was required only qualified employees. After all in the country it is a lot of agricultural population of unskilled workers always it was possible to type so much, how much it was required.
" the Receipt smetok grains "
Partial deviation from this general rule was observed only on the railways. In rapid development of a new type of transport many roads were under construction kontsessionnym in the way private persons or their societies contracted to construct the railways necessary to the state on condition that then they will maintain the constructed lines 25, 50 or even 80 years as it was possible to whom to agree, and only then will transfer to the possession their treasury. The prepared people on whom trouble-free operation depended, did not suffice, and for them there was a struggle between private roads.
so railway societies in 1880 - h will - bondage had to resort years to the tested method of fastening of people on places emeritalnym to cash desks and also to include in number of their participants not only locomotive firemen, but also switchmen, inspectors of ways and inspectors of cars. But that participants of new cash desks, God forbid, did not feel more equal to generals, officials or the bank employees, new cash desks began to call not emeritalnymi, and pension.
for attraction of workers the private railways had to go on considerable deviations from the rules of activity established in the Russian empire emeritalnyh cash desks. So, in the charter of pension cash desk It is Moscow - the Kursk railway, resolved by the Minister of Railways on December, 14th, 1882, it was provided, what even in case of road sale or its transfer to treasury the pension cash desk remains to other private society perfectly safe and will continue the work at the new owner. In it it was specified that full pension machinists, switchmen, poverstnye watchmen, and also some other categories of workers can receive after 19 years of service, instead of after 35, as officers. Besides, instead of difficult calculations of the salary from which the pension paid off, the maximum pensions for train brigades were established from calculation: to machinists 400 rbl. a year, to their assistants 200, to firemen 70.
In essence, private roads have begun to compete among themselves and to state roads, enticing skilled workers different advantages of the pension cash desks. The similar situation did not suit the empire government and consequently on May, 30th, 1888 emperor Alexander III has confirmed presented to it the State advice " General provisions on pension cash desks of the Russian railways " equalising conditions of activity of cash desks. And on June, 2nd, 1903 the legislation have added " Position about pension cash desk of employees on the state railways ".
As a result railwaymen, as well as the majority of participants emeritalnyh cash desks, gave on the future pension of 6 % from earnings and 10 % with nagradnyh. Besides, their cash desks replenished with treasury and various foreign incomes. Charters provided that to pension cash desks went:
" a receipt not accepted (the addressee. " the power " ) in target dates of luggage and cargoes behind a deduction from the realised sum of the payments which are due to the railways by existing rules; Receipt smetok grains from cars, station platforms and others skladochnyh premises of the railways and the auxiliary enterprises connected with last; the sums which have been not obtained on demand in target dates from cash desk by persons, having on them the right; the penal money collected from employees; gathering for the maintenance of buffets at stations of the railways; not obtained on demand by employees within ten years after purpose to delivery a monetary contentment from the railways; a rent for the right of an exhibition of announcements and signboards and for trade in newspapers and books at stations of the railways... "
in addition railwaymen have acquired the right to full pension after 15 years of service and payments in pension cash desk. And if decided to remain and continue work in addition to the salary received half of pension. That who has decided to leave on the merited rest, gave the option to receive pension for life or to take away all saved up sum at once. So the youngish pensioner could open any own business. Therefore it is possible to present, as railwaymen were indignant, remained without pension accumulation which were confiscated by the Soviet power.
" it is a policy the patient and not rational "
military men have not less become embittered also, whose accumulation in emeritalnye cash desks also were nationalised by the Narcofloor-mat of the finance. The general - the lieutenant Gilchevsky after forty years of six-percentage payments should receive in a year at least 1718 rbl. emeritalnoj pensions and 1122 rbl. of pension from treasury, that is 236 rbl. a month. Even taking into account that the Soviet rouble of 1927 on purchasing capacity considerably conceded to imperial rouble of 1913, the pension in 236 rbl. would allow Gilchevsky to live in the USSR without knowing material cares. But instead of it it, and that in case of a recognition invalid, payment in 6 - 8 rbl. a month expected. For comparison: In 1927 one piece of toilet soap of perfumery factory " the Bolshevik " cost from 84 copeck to 6 rbl.
In the letter to Kalinin indignant Gilchevsky appealed to logic and conscience of the Soviet heads:
" If the government declares that it the government not Russia, and the Union, why when it is desirable for it to receive something, for example, claims to insurance societies, it says that the Union the fellow-heir of the former Russia. It is necessary to be consecutive both logical if the Union considers itself as the fellow-heir of the former Russia then it is necessary to recognise and obligations of last, i.e. obligations on delivery emeritalnoj (insurance) pension. What for to create dissatisfied, them and so weight, almost 99 / 100 all population. It is a policy the patient and not rational. The answer of a reception of owls. Plank beds. komis. RSFSR from June, 9th of 27 that I can be converted into social security, to me was known very well. When I will not have eyes, hands and feet after long and very long drudgeries and humiliations I can receive seven-rouble pension, i.e. for two pounds of bread not to die from hunger. I have responded a reception that I refuse the offered humane social help and I endow it on defence ".
Practically about the same, but in softer form, the representative of workers Main tiflisskih railway workshops P.Adamov wrote to Stalin:
" On an explanation of Narkomfina of the USSR our money is listed in the treasury income in 1918 and behind the expiration three-year davnostnogo term to return is not subject. Except this speaks that compensation of the material damage which was accepted by insurance cash desks and the organisations, has been transferred on the state in the form of social security which has accepted now the wide sizes and made in strictly organised order, and that the government directives concerning the raised question, have been published in meeting of legalisations and orders in 1918 and 1920 As you certainly know, sovetizatsija Transcaucasia was in 1921, and therefore decrees and the Government directives published to sovetizatsii, to us were not known, and we could not ask about return of our savings to sovetizatsii, that is till 1921 ".
Adams has described all attempts of railwaymen to achieve return of pension money:
" From the date of sovetizatsii all of us time applied as to local authorities, together with visitors from the USSR to members of the Government about return of our savings. In 1922 we have applied to dead Narkomputi tov. Any answer we have not received F.Dzerzhinsky who promised to send the answer from Moscow, but. In 1923 during time (sessions. " the power " ) the Central Electoral Committee in Tiflise we had been submitted the request, and to us has been declared that " now the government not in a status to return this money " ".
Workers of workshops hoped that after the Soviet government has begun again negotiations about payments on imperial debts, business will move off dead centre:
" In view of that our Government repays now imperial debts to foreign citizens we can hope that our Government will find possibility if not at a time in two or three terms to return our labour savings. The slogan of our leader " plunder stolen " It is impossible to apply to our labour savings and to list in treasury on the identical bases as millions former manufacturers, factory owners, bankers, speculators, princes, landowners and on a broader scale predators. At reduction of works of the railways in 1918 at Mensheviks the part of employees has been dismissed, and then at dismissal they have received pension and who has been insured those have received also insurance, and we who have remained on service workers and employees, have not received till now the savings. Under inquiries to us, the Transcaucasian railwaymen, some millions are due... We, workers and the employees always going in avant-guard of revolution, hope, as to us will be returned, if not at a time, though in two or three terms our terribly earned and for rainy day sberezhennye pennies. After all it is impossible to beat out from consciousness of the worker and the employee, that is the poor man that it can lose the labour savings. We ask your assistance, dear Joseph Vissarionovich to give the end to a question stirring us ".
However Stalin and has not helped. After all the sums were required too big behind several millions roubles for workers of one Transcaucasian road after the created precedent would be required ten millions for other roads, and then hundred millions for all former participants pension and emeritalnyh cash desks. And to support those who cannot benefit the Soviet power any more, whether it be the grown old experts of imperial times or the defenders of the new system who has become by invalids in Civil war (see " Memorable messages " in " the Authorities " N28 for 2012), obviously did not enter into plans of heads of the country. After all in any country the more the government speaks about care of the people, the solves all problems at the expense of simple people is more often.