Aliens of electronic Russia
the Government should be invisible, and electronic state services give the authorities such chance. However, at present level of penetration of the Internet they are inaccessible to the majority of the population, and many do not see in them any necessity. But with network development on " the electronic government " there will be a demand, are assured of telecommunication companies.
When - nibud the Internet becomes the main way of dialogue of citizens with officials, having reduced necessity of their personal meetings to a minimum. Basically not such far prospect. Through the Internet it is possible to be converted into court, to submit the declaration on incomes, to pay taxes, to write down the child in a kindergarten, to check up marks at the schoolboy, and in some countries - and to vote on elections. Certainly, to direct democracy to all of us it is still far, but here to lower household corruption and simply to save time electronic services are capable already now.
However the thought on them does not call any delight many Russian citizens. According to fund " Public opinion " 42 % of the population of the Russian Federation (including the Internet there is more than quarter present - audiences) to use electronic state services do not want. With 2010 for 2011 their number even has grown on 20 %, and is the most notable - in cities with number of inhabitants from 250 thousand to 1 million, that is as sociologists, in the same place, where in this time " mark; it is more to people about them have learnt ".
Here, truth, arises the following question: what exactly was learnt by these people? After all, according to the same research, the considerable part informed - and about possibility to receive service of authorities through the Internet knows about availability of such option approximately 41 % of Russians - no concept has about in what these electronic state services consist. Though every tenth Russian (22 % of monthly audience of the Internet in Russia) declares that the Internet - services of official bodies and services uses, in a reality 6 % of the population resort to them only. The others " users " accept for state services that payment through the Internet of utilities and telecommunication, purchase of the goods or, for example, train tickets or the plane. And from this that actually concerns the state and municipal services, citizens name making a list of appointments in polyclinic and a call of the doctor on the house more often.
service of local value
the Basic problem with electronic state services consists " that there are no real automated state services " the chief of department of designing complex IT - decisions of the Center of regional programs of perfection of a state administration of the Higher school of economy Timur Hafizov considers.
As a rule, to people access to municipal services is necessary, he specifies: " It in Moscow people interests, say, the international passport order, and on village absolutely other services which electronic realisation of a hand do not reach " are necessary;. At the same time any electronic services at municipal level are given, but all depends on that, the account in the corresponding organisations is how much automated.
" service is possibility not simply to put in the statement, but also to receive any information, and not only static, but also personified, - the expert explains. - for example, there is a service: making an appointment with the doctor. But record to the local doctor is based on a local principle. The person cannot register in reception if does not know where it is attributed. Means, the site should give it this information ". As a rule, just making a list of appointments in polyclinic or record of the child in a kindergarten in variety of cities, according to mister Hafizova, " take place to be in good realisation ".
As to other popular service - checks of school marks it as the expert speaks, meets often in a format, to state services not having any relation. " schools raise from parents money that they will receive SMS - notification messages about, a leah their child has come to school what estimations at it and so on, and this money goes that specially employed organisation translates the data from paper magazines in electronic system. This system has no legal importance because the magazine is conducted in a paper kind. State service is when I can come through a portal, enter the login - the password and to obtain the official data from electronic magazine. Now these diaries are not connected with a state portal in any way " - mister Hafizov underlines.
However, even correctly realised " services of local value " with a uniform state portal (www. gosuslugi. ru), as a rule, are not integrated. Such sheaf is a separate technical problem which demands expenses essential to regions.
a portal instead of turn
But a root of all problems as mister Hafizov says, that granting of municipal services is not regulated and electronic interdepartmental interaction at level of regions and municipalities is not adjusted - without it about automation cannot be and speeches.
at federal level this problem too faced, but eventually past autumn of premieres - minister Vladimir Putin declared that since October, 1st, 2011 federal enforcement authorities pass to a new operating procedure. " It is a question of that when the citizen comes to any establishment, in this case federal, behind any inquiry or the document, officials will not have the right to drive it on other establishments for the purpose of reception of the information from other governing bodies. And this establishment where have come behind the inquiry, itself should receive the necessary information and give out the definitive document " - the prime minister at session of the government explained an essence of transformations.
to regions and municipalities a task in view to introduce such scheme of work by July, 1st, 2012 (by this time as remind in " Rostelecom " each subject of federation is obliged to realise in electronic form not less than ten state services), but the probability is great that they will not have time to execute a demanded spectrum of works to necessary term, mister Hafizov shares fears.
Realization of this scheme can simplify granting of electronic state services considerably. " If there was a normal interdepartmental interaction between authorities the state service order would consist that the person in a private office would inform that it needs to receive any document, and all information necessary for it, all inquiries arrived as a result of interaction between departments " - the expert explains. And without it electronic services accessible to citizens only " scraps of that should be ".
" I can leave the statement on a portal that then to come and to submit without turn originals of documents. In what state service consists? What in all state bodies tablets have hung up what the people who have registered on a portal of state services, are served out of turn? It not state service. It is service of preliminary record that I in authorities in turn did not stand. No more that " - mister Hafizov speaks.
It does not exclude that such approach strengthens negative attitude of citizens to electronic services: they " hours wait, and here someone comes and says that has registered on a state portal ". However, it is obvious that similar reaction would not be, if users of electronic services was more.
Now authorised users of a portal of state services are almost 1,4 million persons, this number grows on 100 thousand monthly and, predictably, by 2015 should reach 5 million In the company notice that demand for electronic state services directly is connected with their urgency and occurrence of some of them, for example the data about debts under penalties in traffic police, " leads to spasmodic growth of interest " to state services as a whole.
the unknown Internet
the Obstacle in a way of this growth is low level of penetration of the Internet in Russia. In the European countries the majority of inhabitants (in France - 69 %, in Germany - 79 %) uses the Internet, but in the Russian Federation such there is less than half - 47 - 48 % of the population, on different estimations. And when citizens declare that do not want to use state services in a network, it frequently means that they on a broader scale have weak idea about the Internet.
" we set an individual question about the reasons nepolzovanija, - expert FOM Svetlana Petuhova tells. - 10 % of the population speak: " it is not necessary For me " that is they do not see in it need. Here it is possible to add 2 more % of those who says that prefers personal contact. And the others tell all: " I do not own the computer and the Internet, to me it is difficult " (it is 10 % of the population), " I do not have computer and the Internet " (6 %, here are a question any more of absence of skills, and about absence of technical possibility), " I do not trust the Internet " (5 %). That is principal causes are connected with absence of possibilities and skills. Thereof there is also any mistrust. Those who uses him a little do not trust the Internet mainly: at them the habit was not developed still that on the Internet anything is not present terrible, it quite reliable ".
According to FOM if in Moscow by the autumn 2011 - go 68 % of the population used the Internet, and in St.-Petersburg - 71 %, in cities with the population to 100 thousand persons - 45 %, and in villages - 32 %. Thus in variety of regions, according to sociologists, it is already possible to fix market saturation. Has put not so much that really is a lot of users, how much that they more than could be assumed in flowing socially - an economic situation. Taking into account such parametres as level of installation of telephones, on paid services, a share of people with higher education and age structure of the population, it it is possible to say a parity of an average salary and a living wage, volume of expenditure of the population that 21 region (including the Leningrad and Moscow areas, the North Ossetia) has settled possibilities for growth. In 38 subjects of federation (Moscow, Tatarija, Udmurtiya and etc.) Indicators of penetration of the Internet precisely correspond to the settlement. The Internet - audiences are necessary for the further growth growth of a standard of living of the population, development of broadband and wireless access to the Internet and " carrying out of the educational and information programs raising awareness of people and computer literacy " it is marked in report FOM.
Difficulties of access
Development of broadband access (SHPD) is the basic engine of the regional markets, the analyst " believes; VTB the Capital " on Anastas Obuhova`s high technologies. " Both mobile operators, and traditional telecommunications operators offer more and more accessible tariffs and continue expansion of networks, - it explains. - in particular if to speak about a fixed-line telephony, mobile operators " Vympelcom " and MTS complete an optical fiber which historically was, accordingly, at " Goldentelekoma " And " Comstar ". 80 % of users Now there are more come into the Internet from the house, using SHPD ".
In " Rostelecom " notice that for a year market SHPD has grown on 13 % and this growth was in many respects provided with a province. " we really see a tendency of displacement of growth of connections from big cities in regions. For comparison: rates of increase of number of users in cities with population less than 750 thousand persons following the results of 2011 have made 16 %, in Moscow this indicator only 6 % " - have informed in a press - company service.
according to Oleg Leonov, the head of department of sales and service TTK, demand grows " with ward of each new player ": " To three operators it grows essentially, further with the advent of the fourth, the fifth and etc. providers - is already insignificant ". The competition goes at service quality level: Own modern highway allows TTK to give to users the high speed Internet. They receive possibilities to work with " heavy " a content. " offering potential subscribers in small cities service of access to the Internet, we tell to people about what possibilities are opened by the Internet that with its help it is possible to look films and to communicate with friends, to find work and far off to work, get education, to buy the goods, even to receive medical consultations " - mister Leonov speaks. As inhabitants understand advantages SHPD, demand and for service, and for the computer technics extends.
in small cities where while approximately 60 % of families do not have computers, teenagers become initiators of connection of the Internet. " engines " The market are aged people from 15 till 23 years, those who actively uses social networks, a multimedia content, those for whom the Internet is necessary for study. On the second place - young men 23 - 30 years, for which especially job search pressing question.
electronic state services, services the Internet - bankinga - services more difficult and demanding certain skills and known degree of trust to the Internet - to services, is a following level of use of the Internet which in the majority of small cities where demand on SHPD is just formed, will not reach yet. But as soon as " primary requirements " in dialogue, entertainments, education reception are satisfied, people start to show interest to more difficult services.