Deterioration of fixed capital — any more the accounting term. Even more often it is necessary to measure infrastructure ageing not by gross national product percent, years and trillions roubles, and human lives.
deterioration on a record
the Tragedy on Kuban throughout three weeks remains the focal point in the country. All releases of news begin detailed reportings on the help to victims, with messages from Krymska information tapes, and discussion both #150 dazzle; blogs and social networks. Local authorities have managed to show full administrative and professional unfitness. Federal were in time with might and main popiaritsja, promising unprecedented generosity even in infringement of the conventional norms and laws: for example, have promised payment of indemnification and for not insured cars.
thus while there are no results of investigation of causes of accident though primary could appear already. And the questions removed, appear, from the summons come back. Next day after flooding Vladimir Putin has declared that " spillways technologically it is not provided, it simply technically cannot be made, such is a water basin design ". And last week " the New newspaper " has published the estimate and the technical project on reconstruction of the Neberdzhaevsky water basin after deluging of 2002 in which the construction " appears; a mine spillway " and " ground water release ".
Or Putin local officials and representatives of Rostehnadzora have misled, urging the head of the state to inform in front of chambers obviously unreliable information. Or they have told truth: spillways simply have not been built, and money has been stolen. Probably also that soon we will hear explanations that under these spillways actually meant absolutely - absolutely other spillways.
it is not clear only as in atmosphere of total corruption and lie it is possible to demand and count on efficiency of long-term infrastructural investments seriously. The former Minister of Finance Alexey Kudrin named one of the reasons of education of Stabfonda just absence of mechanisms of investment in economy and preferred to hide petrodollars from a sin far away.
Meanwhile ageing of an infrastructure and deterioration of fixed capital gradually become the main problems for economy. More important, than operative indicators of rates of increase of gross national product, unemployment or inflation. Even it is more important, than long-term trends. Because not decrease in a standard of living, and human lives becomes a payment for neglect of these problems.
almost the biggest deterioration of fixed capital, according to Rosstata, is fixed, by the way, in " gathering, clearing and distribution of water resources ": 53,8 %. After fishery, where accident scales (deterioration 65 %) suggest an idea about unauthenticity of statistics. The lowest in wood processing: there has become outdated " in total " third of capacities. And deterioration in such vital sphere, as " manufacture and distribution of gas, water and the electric power " makes 41,7 % (schedule 4 see).
the Soviet inheritance
" Deterioration in electric power industry makes 55 - 65 %, speaks " to Money " the former chairman of board of directors of the Russian Open Society " EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY " the adviser of the president " Eurocement of groups " Victor Kudrjavyj. term in 40 years all over the world is considered limiting for deterioration of units in power ". Definitive deterioration of the equipment on substation " CHagino " in particular 45 - summer transformers, has led blekautu on May, 25th, 2005 in Moscow. Then access to the electric power have lost about 2 million persons.
completions of fixed capital up to the mark do not occur. Formally investments into fixed capital grow throughout 10 years, except for crisis 2009 - go. Following the results of 2011 they have made 10,78 trln rbl. But in the ratio with scales of economy they and could not be restored at pre-crisis level, having decreased for four years from 21,27 % to 19,75 % of gross national product (schedule 1 see).
Crisis has started to outflow of investments, and it was inevitably reflected in investments in fixed capital. First of all have reduced investments into fixed capital foreign proprietors (schedule 2 see). Under conversations on necessity of immediate upgrade of fixed capital of the enterprises have reduced investments and the Russian authorities. Level of investments into fixed capital in state property has fallen below level 10 - summer prescription: 3,15 % of gross national product in 2011. The budgetary funds of all levels directed on the investment into fixed capital, also were reduced to level of the beginning of the zero: 2,7 % of gross national product (schedule 3 see).
On a broader scale, 20 % of gross national product quite sufficient level of investments into fixed capital for many large economy. At the given level or even on some percentage points more low this indicator is in France, Germany, Great Britain. But this economy concerns the developed: the general status of an infrastructure at them is much better, because less means is allocated for support. For actively developing economy the high level of investments into fixed capital is characteristic more. In India in 2011 it has made 30 % of gross national product, in China 44 %. Accordingly above and rates of increase: if the Russian gross national product has added 4,3 %, Indian 7,5 %, and Chinese 9,2 %.
Our present level of investments into fixed capital is insufficient not only for upgrade, but even for maintenance in an efficient status of an infrastructure. And conversations about prozhiganii the Soviet inheritance without completion with horror stories about technological accidents gradually pass in a realistic plane. Most sharply it became appreciable in power, on transport and in housing and communal services sphere.
almost daily from regions news about the failed ground, the fallen off walls and roofs, placing of the suffered tenants at the next schools and payment of indemnifications come. But what to speak about regions if passed in Moscow on July, 13th the downpour has deluged city centre so that in some areas water rose overknee. It has appeared, capital collectors are hammered and not prepared for a rain. Consequences liquidated 120 brigades.
on transport the situation is not better: after sunk from deterioration and barbarous operation " Bulgariej " the Yak - 42 near Yaroslavl with an ice-hockey team " has broken; the Locomotive " onboard. The plane by the time of accident was maintained already almost 20 years. In total last year in Russia was almost three ten air crashes, in 12 from them people were lost.
in expectation of an apocalypse
" Deterioration does not mean that will be inevitable accident, but it is one of preconditions, Victor Kudrjavyj speaks. at an explanation of causes of accident on Sajano - Shushensky HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION many specify in the unrepaired unit, on the human factor. Actually the main reason in destruction of system of reliability, the prevention, localisation and decrease in consequences of accidents ".
Failure on Sajano - Shushensky HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION has in a sense put on August, 17th, 2009 end under reform of the Russian power. " on such unique object control, replacement of coppers, turbines, valves, and #150 is necessary constant reglamentatsionnyj; Victor Kudrjavyj tells. But the system of maintenance of reliability has been completely destroyed, control over equipment work is stopped, the power station within 10 years worked without scientifically - technical support and support ".
One of the former heads of branch is assured that capacities have come to such pitiable status from - for absence scientifically - technological coordination between the making, main and marketing companies. And also from - for a system failure by preparation of heads, experts, operators of systems of maintenance service. On this background preparing merge FSK and " Holding MRSK " it is conceived as attempt to regain uniform control of branch.
" it is one of elements of return association. In Germany E. ON works in the market conditions, each separate business conducts the account, but E. ON remains vertically integrated company: Investments into fixed capital and distribution of means to a science are concentrated in one hands " Victor Kudrjavyj speaks. While other state power company " RusGidro " has preferred to increase of investments into fixed capital purchase of a controlling interest of football club " Alanija ".
As on a threshold August flooding on Kuban seems while only rehearsal, and it is necessary to reflect seriously where can jerk next time. According to Rosstata, deterioration of the equipment at level about half or is more observed, in particular, in such critical branches for the Russian economy, as transport and fuel extraction. Better to say, in a zone of risk export pipelines and top incomes.