Unequal BRICKIn capital and big cities of service the Internet - access cost not much, and speed is high. In small settlements and on periphery - expensively and slowly. Such situation is characteristic not only for Russia, but also for its countries-partners on BRICK, and also other developing economy. And everywhere the governments promise to liquidate a digital inequality in the future.
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Access from jungle
From 31 million the Brazilians living in countryside, only 2 % have houses possibility of access to the Internet. The data collected in 2010 by the National union of operators of satellite communication is that. According to consulting company Teleco, from more than 5 million the agricultural enterprises located in countryside, only 75 thousand use the Internet - services.
the data on the country as a whole looks absolutely on - to another. The Internet 38 % of the population, among youth (age 16 - 24 years) - 67 % actively use. 20 % of city households are connected to a network. 48 % of active Internet users connect Network in the Internet - cafe, 42 % do it houses, 22 % - on a visit, 21 % - on work (result exceeds 100 % as some use various variants of access). Broadband access (SHPD) in a city is at 58 % of the city households connected to a network. In countryside of users SHPD it is not enough. Representatives of the households which are not using the Internet, quite often explain the refusal of the Internet - services by the high prices of providers (54 %) or their absence in certain region (17 %). Such data is resulted in research " All Brazil " 2009, prepared by the Network centre of the information and coordination of Brazil (the administering national domain. br).
According to national " to Plan SHPD " To 2014 40 % of households of the country should be provided the Internet - access for the speed over 1 MB / second at the price of 35 reals ($22 a month). The plan is realised by four national companies - Telemar Norte Leste, Telefonica Brazil, Algar Telecom and Sercomtel. Not clearly, truth, in what measure the plan will concern inhabitants of rural areas.
in April of last year the Brazilian telecommunication regulator Anatel has announced new rules of distribution of radio frequencies. By these rules the range 450 - 470 MHz will be opened for private operators-service providers wire and a wireless communication. The program is directed on struggle against a digital inequality - first of all on providing the big availability of the Internet, including SHPD, for inhabitants of rural areas and regions with low population density. In August the desire to obtain the licence for work in this range declared the Swedish operator Net 1.
Company TIM Brasil intends to enclose till 2013 171 million reals ($109 million) in a lining of an optical fiber of 1985 km in states of Amazonas, Pair and Amapa in economically backward north of the country.
the ministry of a science and technology of Brazil together with National board on scientifically - to technical development carry out the project " SHPD for rural areas ". Project cost is rather low - about 2,2 million reals ($1,2 million). The purpose - working out of the new chip for SHPD specially for areas with low population density. The first prototype of the chip should be presented in February.
the Internet against mandi
At the country population in 1,12 mlrd the person only about 52 million Indians actively use the Internet (from them 13 million - broadband). " Actively " to the Indian measures means not less an once in a month. 69 million more the person leave in the Internet and than that is more rare. - 1 % from the population - it is difficult to name level of availability SHPD high.
one of the reasons - a low standard of life. Even among active Internet users of 60 % have no house computer. For many inhabitants of the country the computer - the inadmissible luxury, and the market of telecommunication services of the country develops basically at the expense of a cellular telephony.
by different estimations, on the end of last year in India cellular telephones used 730 - 760 million persons. This year the figure has grown still approximately on 100 million
However India starts to step up a universal computerisation. If plans of the government of India are realised, to 2014 160 million inhabitants of the country will be accessible SHPD. However, speech again goes first of all about inhabitants of large settlements. The overwhelming majority of Indians uses a network in the entertaining purposes, downloading music and films, communicating in chats, using electronic mail. Thus 70 % of the population of the country live in rural areas. The problem of a digital inequality costs in India very sharply.
Satjanarajan Gangaram Pitroda more known in the West as Sam Pitroda, the adviser of premieres - the minister of India concerning an information infrastructure and innovations, declared in October, 2010 government plans to enclose $3,4 mlrd in improvement of quality of access to the Internet in rural areas of the country. As for the majority of countrymen the computer the expensive thing, means have been directed basically on creation of the new centres public the Internet - access and new communication lines. The initiative has appeared rather successful. For a year 2011 number of active Internet users in rural areas of India has doubled - from 12,1 million to 24 million persons, according to IAMAI and IMRB. In recent interview BBC the Minister of Communications and information technologies of India Sachin the Pilot has noticed that the main problem in this sphere for the country in which is more than 600 thousand Villages, the problem " is well-known to Russians; last mile ". The centres of public access to the Internet completely not necessarily Internet - cafe. In rural areas inhabitants quite often use (free of charge!) The computer with access to the Internet, established at office panchajata - local government. The most demanded information - the price for agricultural products which is grown up by local farmers. Starting in 2000 at the initiative of conglomerate ITC the program e - Choupal allows to receive free of charge the information on the prices of 4 million farmers from more 40 thousand villages through 6,5 thousand Internet - booths which carry the same name, as the program. Before farmers handed over a crop in mandi (the purchasing centres) through intermediaries at the price strongly conceding to the market. Through booths farmers can realise also the goods, buy seeds and fertilizers, to learn a weather forecast, to get acquainted with new technologies of agricultural manufacture.
company Sai Info Systems together with state BSNL has started in 2009 the video telephony project (both wire, and wireless). If at early stages of the project it looks as original replacement Skype - with cheap calls on the country, and also to Great Britain and the USA subsequently the infrastructure will be used also for an embodiment in life of the state initiatives on development the Internet - access to the remote areas. Inhabitants of village will have an opportunity to use on visual communication medical and educational services. In plans also reception by countrymen of the state services through the Internet.
the program " Incorporated villages " operates by a principle unfamiliar, for example, in Russia. Buses and motorcycles with the equipment established on them for a wireless communication go on the remote areas in which there is no constant access to a network, allowing local residents to leave in the Internet those days when the bus or a motorcycle comes to village.
it is necessary to notice that speed to which there are changes in the Indian cyberspace, amazes. So, the number of Internet users in the country only for last year has grown on 21 % - from 100 million to 121 million persons. With 2009 for 2011 the number of the new centres public the Internet - access has increased more than four times - to 100 thousand
lives 57 % of inhabitants of the country In rural areas of China - 700 million persons. Townspeople spend in a network on the average 19,3 hours per week, peasants - 15,8 hours. Thus in a city 50 % of inhabitants, and in rural areas - 18,5 % (by data the Internet - the centre of an information infrastructure of China for 2010) use the Internet. Rupture between a city and village has made 32,5 % - and it is the highest indicator. In 2009 the difference in level of penetration of the Internet in a city and village made 29,6 %, in 2008 - m - 23,5 %, in 2007 - m - 20,2 %, in 2006 - m - 16,9 %, in 2005 - m - 14,3 %.
As principal causes are called: Smaller the Internet - literacy of countrymen, a weak infrastructure of the Internet on village, the high prices for the Internet - services. And middle tier of incomes in rural areas in 3,2 times below the city.
the Internet is especially inaccessible to juvenile inhabitants of rural areas. The adult who does not have money for the computer, can go to the Internet - cafe (last year the Internet - cafes visited 163 million Chineses), the minor an input in the Internet - cafe it is legislatively forbidden.
attempts to struggle with a digital inequality are undertaken. So, the authorities of China intend during 12 - j (2011 - 2015) to achieve a five-years period of that SHPD it became accessible to 95 % of administrative educations of the country, were declared this year by the deputy minister of the industry and information technology of Si Gohua. Now the corresponding indicator is equal 80 %.
the Chinese association of sciences and technologies has created in Ninsja - Huejsky independent region (one of the poorest in the country) the centre in which about 170 thousand local farmers have trained to use the Internet. For last three years farmers have sold through the Internet agricultural products for the sum over 230 million yuans ($34 million). In suburb of Dalian the same association has helped 2 thousand farmers to master technology of cultivation of mushrooms and to earn on it $2,9 million
At China, however, there is one appreciable advantage before other developing countries: the state plays very large role in economy development. In case of presence of political will Internet development in the remote and sparsely populated areas will occur irrespective of economic aspect of similar investments. Last month the power of the Peoples Republic of China declared the ten years` program of struggle against poverty in agricultural areas. With increase of a standard of living as a whole should decrease and level of a digital inequality.
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