last years Russia — one of leaders of world export of wheat. In the lucrative job of the country, Krasnodar territory as the correspondent " has found out; Money " Alexey Bojarsky, just right already to film " the Kuban cowboys ". Local peasants not so are assured of themselves and are courageous with the power as the American farmers, but at all most successful of them have already learnt to earn on bread.
the Earth has waited the investor
the Main television news in Krasnodar territory, there was no yet a tragedy, it, of course, the harvest. It is shined in the best traditions Soviet still programs " Time ": to a pain a familiar picture of approach of the combines strewing grain in attached trucks. Nearby in the field the head of an economy who irrespective of the form of its property looks as the chairman of collective farm, reports on the local Minister of Agriculture on by all means successful work The minister, however, according to genre laws, ozabochenno frowns. Further performance of the governor before a packed house of rural heads in identical white shirts with short sleeves. You will look it seems, as if with 1980 - h in agriculture of the country has changed nothing. However here it is equal that situation when the picture lags behind a reality. The USSR stably in great volumes dokupal wheat abroad. And 2011 / 12 years Russia has taken out to a season abroad 21 million tons, having taken among world exporters the second place after the USA (28,7 million tons). Kuban, in Soviet period considered as the main barn of the country, and today the leader both on productivity, and on volumes of collected wheat: more than 7 million tons in 2011.
the Kuban farmer Valery Kijashchenko remembers, how in 2009 on agricultural section of the International economic forum in St.-Petersburg he has heard from the head of the Savings Bank Herman Gref about three ways to be ruined: the fast Jumps, the most pleasant women, the most reliable agriculture. The joke, of course, graceful, but investors, is noticed by the farmer, already consider on - to another.
on an input in agroholding office " Kuban " I am am met by the prevention from Peter I " If to that henceforth, who will repair harm to agriculture to hang up those persons remorselessly! ". I rise on the second floor and in a corridor I will come across the tablet " Rusal ". At the companies the general owner: Oleg Deripaska also the basic shareholder of the largest agroholding of Krasnodar territory.
what to expound in offices? Me at once invite to sweep on a combine. " and to us Deripaska, not Deripaska, the main thing that the salary paid, the machine operator is frank in a cabin of a combine. but personally to me in plus: the new technics has bought. On an import combine it is more pleasant to work, than on ours, moreover on second-hand articles ". I remember that last year as, from a combine, the president and the prime minister - the minister inspected harvest, only in corn. " when Putin came, from all area militia have driven, the combine operator tells. the familiar militiaman said that sat in corn and protected, without being put out ".
German combine Class (from 9 million to 18 million rbl. depending on model and a complete set) the car - a beast: almost seven-ton bunker has filled minutes for fifteen. In a cabin a radio tape recorder, the conditioner. The onboard computer counts up obmolot, and the autopilot himself levels the car on field edge. In some economy on combines put navigating system GLONASS having saved the data of productivity adhered to co-ordinates, it is possible to build analytics, to correct volumes of fertilizers. According to the director for Open Society plant growing " Agroassociation " Kuban " " (Agroholding division) Dmitry Lebedja, usually average productivity on wheat in edge makes 60 ts / hectare. Optimum productivity at the today`s prices 70 ts / hectare. Having added fertilizers and protection frames of plants, it is possible to achieve and 90 ts / hectare but then the cost price of kg of grain will sharply grow both #150; and the margin will decrease. This year on Kuban from - for abnormal frosts on wheat a poor harvest during our visit it was already ascertained, but officially has not been estimated yet.
" in my economy 35 ts / hectare and as at me productivity always the highest, that, it is assured, and average on edge above will not be. But to me do not refer: our Minister of Agriculture has flown recently about fields by the helicopter, and to it have already reported about 60 ts / hectare " one of farmers speaks. The realisation price is badly predicted, as depends on the prices in the world market and a dollar exchange rate. This year like would carry: Now from - for a poor harvest the price will grow in the USA.
agroholding " Kuban " the giant: the general arable land of 84 thousand in hectare. When you go across Krasnodar territory, here and there in different areas its tablets near to fields are evident. Here all is exemplary - is indicative: elevator in height with 12 - the floor house on which top we rise in the usual lift, the new seed-growing centre, the personnel in a firm uniform. As employees of laboratory Ladoga kukuruzno - kalibrovochnogo industrial complex (enters into holding) have informed, at them the Japanese monitoring system of quality kajdzen is introduced. Having admired object of investments of the oligarch, we have gone to look on averages and small farmers.
by data minselhoza Krasnodar territory, from 3,75 million in hectare of an arable land on small economy it is necessary almost 1 million Economy here the sea as not processed arable land already is not present for a long time, and not only arable lands I the eyes saw the sunflower planted by someone in the tideway of recently dried up rivulet, that is on neugodjah.
at section of collective farms everyone managed the ground share on the average on 4 hectares, sometimes to 20 hectares. Someone has had time to sell the shares, but the majority keeps for the earth to the last. To process a tiny plot not always it turns out, and there is no sense, therefore it is leased. For example, 40 % of the earth on which the agroholding " works; Kuban " it is leased by it. In 3 - 4 hectares the holding pays for the share annual rent by money or in kind about 1,2 tons of grain, 50 kg of sugar, 30 kg of vegetable oil.
the Earth a capital basis. Accordingly, in leaders of business those who bought up in time still cheap ground shares were beat out, and after has favourably concluded lease contracts (usually for ten years). Now trade in the earth was partially replaced with a cedation of the right of rent. As to property shares of collective-farm actives here to anybody has got nothing to saw, like a field, a cowshed or a mill it is impossible. The escaped property of collective farms, is frequently deliberate obankrochennyh their chairmen, has been then sold for copecks.
from a fist to serednjaka
Before Open Company staff " Zareche " on farm Red a lawn, as at the White house in Washington: an English lawn and five high flagstaffs with fluttering flags of Russia, edge, the area, the company and its partner in delivery of chemicals firms Bayer. Under flagstaffs a marble podium with beaten out in Russian and, more low, in English mission: " we Work for the blessing of Russia ". On parking off-road cars of bonus stamps. On an agricultural machinery platform too all new and the best: have started to re-equip since 2005, to buy in park American New Holland. " Here now the price of ton of wheat at stock exchanges $270 (the price for June, 29th. " money " ), the owner of the enterprise Valery Kijashchenko lifts a head from laptop Apple. we Multiply by a course 33 rbl. and it is received almost 9 thousand rbl. for ton, 9 rbl. for kg. We take away the surcharge of traders 2 rbl. and it is received the today`s price about 7 rbl. for a kilogramme. Now to sell there is no sense: if, predictably, the dollar exchange rate rises, also wheat will automatically rise in price ".
Kijashchenko goes on agricultural exhibitions to Europe and America, not to mention a mentioned economic forum, and it would seem, the simple farmer from Tihoretsky area with an arable land in 3,5 thousand in hectare and four tens workers. The average monthly salary of the machine operator for nine months of a season, according to Kijashchenko, 35 - 40 thousand rbl. In agroholding " Kuban " have informed that their machine operator on the harvest earns in a month to 80 thousand rbl. And on the average on a year there is 50 thousand machine operators Stick in a harvest season of unequivocally more than eight hours per day and frequently without days off stand only during a rain. Among hired workers they elite: the tariff for 12 - 16 - the hour working day for collecting the potato manually dug out by a tractor at local farmers from 500 to 1,5 thousand rbl.
" Nikolaevna called, at them " Frenchmen " (the French grades of wheat. " money " ) too vymerzli ". agriculturist Alexey comes Into an office. " mice in the field were not, means, and the crop will not be " Kijashchenko nods.
" the Crop, a poor harvest the prices for grain considerably will not grow, he notices already to me. in Russia there is no free market. Three traders arrange and hold procurement prices. Bread a social product. The state does not allow to a retail to raise the price, the shop is pressed on a mill, and by a mill On the peasant ". pogonjav on field roads to grounds " Zarechja " with a speed of 100 km / ch (as has noticed Kijashchenko, " the field begins after the journey ") We go to next Ust - Labinsk area in a country economy of Gorshunova.
If not points, Sergey Gorshunov would look as the typical American farmer in jeans, a cowboy`s hat and on a powerful pickup. However, when it leaves a pickup and takes off a hat it is more similar to the school teacher. " I also am the teacher 26 years has fulfilled at school, Gorshunov confirms. In 1992 the mother-in-law has presented to me the share 3,5 hectares, all also have begun with it ". Now at it with two sons of own earth of 200 hectares and more 400 hectares of the rented. Hired workers ten persons.
" at first ground shares for a bottle bought from you " I notice. " to us for a bottle has got nothing: were not in time " Igor, Sergey Gorshunova`s elder son laughs.
Igor the former military engineer, has passed flashpoints, his younger brother Maxim The economist. Now both work with the father, almost all technics two combines, eight tractors, three dump-body trucks both two fire-engines they have bought in the form of stuff, have restored the hands. " that combine, Maxim nods on " Don " which to me has seemed to newcomers, we for 300 thousand rbl. have bought and have restored in such status it costs to 1,5 million ". But the American tractor Challenger have got new on credit. " not for pontov, Igor explains. at it productivity four times above, than at ours T - 150 ".
the Owner with pride shows the corpulent grounds. " see a field at the neighbour? Gorshunov waves towards small sunflowers half-and-half with weeds. any comparison with mine. And all because I am put in fertilizers, protection, simply I stick without days off ". As he said, it has replaced some agriculturists while at last has not found the standing expert. We admire on repaired elevator and a mill further, which else hand have not reached. Around ruins, the former collective-farm constructions. " when we receded, all behind itself have burnt " Sergey Gorshunov jokes, meaning transfer of assets from the collective property in the private. According to Maxim, today family business without the earth costs to 60 million rbl. the Gross revenue for 2011 22 million rbl., profit 15 - 20 %. Under wheat at Gorshunovyh now 110 hectares. While talked, the family head periodically glanced at the mobile: " Wheat on SMS I sell offers are constantly strewed. Here now suggest to take on 7,2 rbl. for kg. While I wait for growth ".
the Lion`s share of Kuban wheat goes for export. For example, at agroholding " Kuban " 60 %. Thus even such giant works not under direct contracts with foreign buyers, and through exporters. Small economy and on exporters cannot leave volumes not those, therefore basically hand over grain to the Russian secondhand dealers. On the other hand, the trader knowingly eats the bread, that is has the 2 rbl. from wheat kg: shipment for export means an array of problems on an exit in port and presence of transport which will stand in a queue days on loading in Novorossisk. Other direction of sale local millers.
here again there is a possibility to play with the price. For example, foreigners estimate wheat under the protein maintenance, and in Russia the class is appropriated on klejkovine. Accurate correlation between these parametres is not present. The above a class (1 - j the highest), the is more klejkoviny, that bread will be more qualitative. This year wheat part pomerzla, but that that has ascended, has got more klejkoviny It is a lot of grain 2 - go a class. To give for export take at the price of 3 - 4 classes as in it it is a little a protein. But domestic millers can give more: will buy 2 - j a class, will dilute with it cheap last year`s fodder grain 5 - go and will receive a standard flour, as from grain 3 - go a class.
basically wheat crop can be sold and at once at the current price. And even not to collect at all, and to hand over directly in the field on 4 - 5 rbl. for kg to whom it is necessary, will arrive also will clean. But farmers prefer all-the-year-round hazardous price poker.
now harvest, it is a lot of grain, it is handed over by those who has no place to store: the prices low. And in the spring theoretically grain will end both #150; and the prices will fly up. Well and within a year there can be splashes. But factors weight. The prices are unpredictable, to store grain on the stranger elevatore expensively, and in the barn risky: will deteriorate or mice will eat. From here and a constant question: to sell or wait? Unequivocal the situation becomes, when the combine, say, has broken and is urgently necessary expensive zapchast or payment term under the credit has approached, and available assets are not present. Then load grain the car - another and hand over to the first offered ready cash.
" us did not touch, here wheat and poperla "
Having said goodbye to Gorshunovymi, we go in krestjansko - a farm of Makarenko to a village Old Nizhesteblievsky Krasnoarmejsky area. Having wound between rice and potato fields, we leave at last on otshib. The edge of the field which have grown with a weed with rare wheat has something reminding the tank of times of World War I, the huge rusty mechanism with open gear wheels and the wooden ladder put to a high cabin (regular lifting, probably, has decayed). Near to this heap of scrap metal it is met Gennady Makarenko, the strong old man for 70 with a grey-haired beard, and two his sons. " it is a combine " the Field " 1984 of release, Evgenie, senior explains. it on scrap metal have sold, and we at these metallistov for 100 thousand rbl. have redeemed six years ago. Here and now after winter again we will repair and on it we will clean ".
Usually machine operators are engaged in technics repair in the winter, but Makarenko to hold a combine there is no place, to repair a self-propelled gun filled up by snow till the summer there is no sense. " and this help to the peasant when the state incurs payment of bank percent at purchase On credit technicians, actually the grant to bank and the help to factory to sell the second-hand articles " a hand Evgenie in a fit of temper waves. At Makarenko of own earth received in 1992 from fund of redistribution of 21 hectares, and 27 hectares it is rented at the same fund. Hired workers as it is simple to guess, it does not hold sons work only. Wheat at it this year partially vymerzla, and the weed which has broken on its place has beaten remained expects to remove 25 ts / hectare. " you there pass the minister when interview will take, tells Makarenko, if solar oil is cheaper, I with weeds would be overcome. Herbicides of 2,4 thousand rbl. on hectare and fertilizers of 10 thousand rbl. for ton expensively ".
to Doubt that is expensive, it is not necessary. At such giant, as " Kuban " seeds, and protection frames of plants occupy fertilizers in cost prices of wheat of 40 %, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 9 %, and in small family business their share are obviously even more. Credits of Makarenko does not take, including their loop on a neck, therefore survives as can, on own money. And this year while money is not present, has decided what easier not to sow at all part of the areas, than to take the credit. " yes, there is no us Deripaska, certainly " Evgenie laughs.
complaining about arrangement of dealers which underestimate procurement prices and do not admit farmers to port, our peasants from idea of own arrangement - associations wave away: the pier, is at us Association of country (farmer) economy and agricultural co-operatives, only does not work line. Certainly, there were also comparisons with States. In America, say, all respect the cowboy, it the owner, a foot to the governor opens a door. And at the Kuban peasants since Stalin times fear in blood. One of farmers, soglasivshijsja was on interview, thinking that we represent a foreign press, has flatly refused to speak for the Russian edition even anonymously. The others told all very carefully and often said a word " I am afraid ". History with Kushchevsky, and also the further litigation here are endured especially sharply, and everyone conceives happened as superfluous acknowledgement of own lawlessness and feebleness.
about governor Tkacheva you here will hear weight of horror stories up to that it has inflated a last year`s plague of pigs for the sake of destruction of competitors own svinokomleksa which why - that the plague has avoided so there a livestock unlike part-time farms did not destroy. Probably, such theory of plot also raises a smile, but it is obvious that the power associates often here with capture and a lawlessness. And if there was a classical gangster racket earlier, farmers, now tell the main fear people in the civilian will come and will urge to sell the land. After all and in Kushchevsky, farmers assure, the tragedy was played for the sake of capture of the earths of neighbours.
and why at all most successful of farmers earn on bread? Peasants will always complain on the gangsters, expensive solar oil, fertilizers and herbicides, absence of grants and arrangement of traders, but anywhere will not get to from the earth which became directly as in a film " Seven Samurais " or " the Magnificent seven ". Certainly, on a hand growth of world consumption of the foodstuffs, so, and the prices for grain has played. But the main thing peasants have received the earth in the order and have started it to cultivate contrary to all.
" thanks to Yeltsin all has risen. The Earth to peasants have given and have forgotten about them the authorities not to agriculture was. Us did not touch, here wheat and poperla " one of the farmers, wished to remain not named has explained to me.